Many living organisms that exist in symbiosis withman, can cause him significant harm. And the resulting health problems can sometimes be difficult to resolve. In a similar situation gets a man whose body is affected by an itch mite. This parasite has a negative effect on the skin condition, causing a feeling of extreme discomfort and constant health problems.
The first symptoms of scabies begin to manifest themselvesthe first or second week after the initial infection. This dyspnea is important not to be confused with other similar diseases. This will allow timely treatment and avoid possible complications. Therefore, it is necessary to know the symptoms of scabies, and what are the ways of infecting a person with this ailment.
For the first time the symptoms and the first signs of scabies wereare given in the writings of Aristotle more than 2,5 thousand years ago. The description of this disease can be found in the Old Testament. The ancient Greeks believed that scabies is one of the types of skin diseases, which they combined under a single term - "psora". Ancient Romans called such a disease "skabies". So scabies are called in our days. However, in those days people did not know the true cause of this ailment. But even in medieval treatises one can find an assumption about its parasitic nature.
Reliable facts that the symptoms of scabies and itsfurther development is caused by a special kind of ticks, appeared only after the first optical microscope was created. For the first time scrupulous studies of this problem were conducted by the pharmacist Dyachinto Cestoni and the physician Jovan Cosimo Bonomo. In 1687, they described the direct relationship that exists between the scabies present in the human body, as well as cutaneous symptoms that arise after infection.
A fairly complete description of the pathogenesis and etiologyThe disease was given in 1844 by the German dermatologist Ferdinand Hebra. His work was a kind of guidance for doctors, which in 1876 was translated by AGPetopnebnev into Russian.
Many believe that the symptoms of scabies (photos can be seen below) are caused by a certain type of insects.
However, this opinion is erroneous. Scabby mite is an obligate (that is, unable to exist outside the body of its host) a tiny parasite. It belongs to the family of sarcopidids, to the class of arachnids. What are the external signs of this aggressor, becomes clear only when it is considered, which is carried out under a microscope. After all, the sizes of females of such individuals are within 0.45 mm, and the males - 0.2 mm. Taurus in the itch mite is oval, tortoiseshell. His forelimbs have a pincer shape. Once on the human skin, the parasite begins to tear off the particles of the epidermis, while using its gnawing-sucking oral apparatus. Thus, the itch mite pierces the skin and starts to drink blood, moving in a certain, but only one direction. The reason for this movement lies in the covering of its back. On it are scaly laminae, the edges of which have a pointed form. The habitat of the parasites is chosen by the zones under the skin. Here they make moves and lay eggs. The scabies live for a relatively short time. The cycle of its existence is only 30 days. Males after fertilization of females perish. Female same individuals continue to live, laying daily in the subcutaneous courses of 2-3 eggs, which after a few days turn into larvae. This form is preserved for one and a half weeks. After this, the larvae become an adult.
Female, which is the carrier of infection,in one place they do not stay long. They are in constant motion. Moving in the thickness of the epidermis, scabies give patients considerable discomfort. This is especially pronounced at night, when parasites are most active.
Thus, the main place where dwellsparasite - skin layers. On their surface mites appear only in order to mate and continue their migration through the body. That is why the entire life cycle of the parasite is divided into two stages. The first of them is cutaneous. The second is subcutaneous. The first symptoms of scabies may not have apparent external causes. But they also cause suspicion about the presence of the disease. And the most basic of these symptoms is severe itching. He worries a person at a time when the female lays eggs and gnaws out long canals to continue eating. It happens in the evening and at night. In the afternoon, when the parasites rest, an illusion of a retreat of the disease is created, as the itching subsides.
Very often people believe that scabies canOnly asocial elements become ill. However, this infectious disease is diagnosed not only in those whose apartment or house are dirty and littered premises. Often from getting on the skin of scabies mite (itchy), adults and children from quite well-off families suffer.
Infection with such parasites almost always occurs if there is a prolonged contact "skin-skin". Possible transmission and sexual transmission.
Symptoms of scabies in children appear after theirinfection from sick parents with whom they sleep in the same bed. In large and crowded groups other types of skin contacts are possible. This includes strong handshakes, children's fuss, etc.
Some guides still can be seenalready obsolete information that scabies are transmitted through various household items (bedding, household utensils, etc.). To date, experts believe that such a path of infection is unlikely. The exception is only one type of disease - Norwegian. In this case, the number of ticks on the patient's body reaches several million. If we consider a typical case, then there can be found only 10-20 parasites.
People can transfer ticks to people through dogs,cats, livestock, ungulates, etc. All these animals can be infected with various variants of a microscopic parasite, which is able to choose as its master and human. In this case, the symptoms of scabies are similar to those that are caused by the variant of the itch, which prefers to settle on the skin of people.
However, parasites transmitted from animals do notare capable, having got to the person, completely to finish the life cycle. That is why such scabies are classified as short-lived and its treatment does not require the use of scabicides.
How does the first signs (symptoms) of scabies manifest? On the presence of the disease says:
Even with one of the abovethe first symptoms of scabies (photos can be seen additionally in the article) you need to start to act to remove the discomfort. At the same time another confirmation of the diagnosis of an infectious disease will appear on the skin are small whitish strips. These are itchy stitches, the length of which does not exceed 1 cm. Such channels are most often found on the buttocks and abdomen, on the palms and in the armpit, in the folds of the ulnar fold and on the feet.
Symptoms of scabies (photos can be seen in the article) are not always obvious and indisputable.
Such a disease sometimes takes differentform, about which it is important to have at least an approximate idea. Such knowledge will help to recognize the presence of a parasite before going to the doctor. But, as a rule, among the first signs (symptoms) of scabies in adults and in children, itching can be distinguished. When he appears, even without having an idea of how the rash should look on the skin, you need to postpone housework and quickly consult a dermatologist.
The intensity with which the disease occurs is notnecessarily depends on the number of individuals penetrated into the skin of a person. An important factor is the reaction of the patient's body to the parasite itself, its eggs and saliva, as well as the products of vital activity. Such factors lead to the appearance of various types of ailment, which should be considered in more detail.
This form of the disease occurs in thosecases, when a person becomes infected with sexually mature individuals. Such parasites immediately begin active activity, settling on the skin and starting to multiply in it. What in this case has scabies symptoms? With a photo of this form of the disease can be found below.
Of the signs of typical scabies are:
The first signs (symptoms) of scabies, photos of whichis presented in the article, the typical species are expressed in the skin itch, the presence of tick movements, and also in the paired rashes. The manifestation of the disease is intensified after taking a hot bath, and also in the evening hours. It is at this time that the female parasite actively gnaws new canals for laying eggs.
Symptoms of scabies in adults and children can include restless sleep. After all, at night the body is warm, which provokes the female to activity.
In the form of rashes, the first symptoms of scabies in adults (see photo below) can be observed between the fingers and on the chest, on the wrists and near the navel.
This is because parasites prefer to hit those areas, the skin on which is thinner. The tick in this case does not tend to do strokes on the face and between the shoulder blades.
Often people with scabies suffer from an allergic reaction. It manifests itself in the form of urticaria and is caused by the products of the vital activity of the parasite.
Having found out signs (signs) of a scabies, to treatment it is necessary to start immediately. Otherwise, the disease is able to take more complex forms, in the form of joining other skin diseases.
A similar form of the disease manifests its symptoms for a short time. Then it goes into a typical form.
A similar ailment occurs in man, if heinfected with mite larvae. What are the first signs, symptoms of scabies in adults (photos of manifestations of the disease can be seen in the article)? They are rather weak. Bodies appear on the body, but they are small and their number is small. A similar condition lasts until the moment when adults appear on the skin. After the larvae turn into sexually mature ticks, and for this they need two weeks, the disease immediately changes its manifestations.
Symptoms of scabies of this type are expressed, in addition to rashes, and in the skin itch that disturbs a person at night. Instead of moves on his body, vesicles and papules are found.
If contact occurs with infected people, thenthis form of scabies manifests itself more often than others. That is why if in the team or in the family cases of the disease are identified, then it is not worth waiting for the amplification of symptoms. Each person should be treated immediately.
This form of the disease is very difficult fordiagnosis. If you view the photos of the first symptoms of scabies, you can start treatment with a delay, because there are no special signs of such a type of disease.
This disease is also called "scabies of cleanliness". After all, people who wash themselves are prone to infection with a tick. Why is this happening? The fact that soap, which they use, violates the natural barrier of the skin. This makes it vulnerable to parasites. In addition to the often washable people, the propensity to this type of scabies is also the one whose immunity decreased significantly after the course of taking antibiotics. Suffer from the ailment "incognito" and those who are subjected to frequent stresses.
The first symptoms of scabies in adults, oftenusing soap, are barely noticeable. After all, the individuals on the skin are washed off with water and removed with a washcloth. Nevertheless, the patient is worried about severe itching. It also senses the burning of the skin, which is very irritated and has the same appearance as in pyoderma or hives. In this case, diagnose the infectious disease, because of its weak symptoms, only a dermatologist can.
This type of parasitic disease isthe heaviest form of it that only people can have. Such scabies are also called "crustacean" or "cortical". Most often, such an ailment develops in those people who for any reason have a weak sensitivity or complete absence of it. Such violations lead to the fact that a person does not feel an itch and does not turn to a specialist on time, which allows the disease to develop very intensively. In addition, Norwegian scabies are considered to be the most contagious.
What are the reasons for the lack of sensitivity in a person? They are very different. Among them:
This type of scabies is manifested by the following symptoms:
This kind of disease is enoughheavy. In this case, a large number of parasites at different stages of the life cycle can be found on the patient's body, in the crusts formed on the skin, and also in the canals. The diagnosis in such cases is very late, when the disease reaches its highest stage. After all, patients who are carriers of a tick do not even presume they have an infection. They do not have itching, and, consequently, at first symptoms are absent in scabies, and treatment is not performed. This leads to the formation on the body of a lot of massive crusts, in the thickness of which the parasites literally swarm. This defeat is especially clear on the feet and hands. The growths appearing on them are very painful, which limits the movement of the limbs. Nails are damaged in Norwegian scabies, as well as skin on the head and hair. It is worth noting that such symptoms are absent in the typical form of the disease.
A similar form of the disease is a reactionthe body on the products of mites, which is accompanied by eruptions in the form of nodules of cyanotic color, covered with a reddish-brown crust. The appearance of these tumors occurs according to a certain pattern. At first, the lymphoid tissue thickens, and then from its structure there are nodules, the size of which can reach 1 cm. Similar rashes appear in those places where the parasite moves. Nodules cause anxiety in the patient, because they are very itchy. Itching takes place for a long time. It is observed even after the success of the therapy. In this case, particularly susceptible to the reaction of the place on the body, which are the abdomen, buttocks and genitals in men, continue to itch for another 1 to 6 months.
Diagnose a similar kind of scabies with the help of the Cesari sign. With its use, the tick is determined by the palpation of the nodules that tower above the skin.
A similar type of disease occurs wheninfection of humans with pincers parasitizing birds or animals. Bearers of the disease in this case may be sheep and horses, goats and dogs, pigeons and rats, cats, chickens, and other representatives of the animal world.
The incubation period of pseudoraportosis (as yetcalled pseudotrich) is only one hour. After all, in this case, the mites do not try to penetrate deep into the skin. They bite a person, which causes severe itching. After that, rashes appear on his skin. They have the form of spotted spots and blisters and are somewhat larger in size than in the usual scabies. There are such rashes on those parts of the body that are directly in contact with the infected animal.
The scrapings of the skin made with pseudocutaneous skin do not have eggs and mite larvae. After all, in this case the parasite reproduces only on animals.
Sometimes, if this kind of disease is manifested (see photos of symptoms), and the treatment of scabies as such may not be required. It is enough to stop contact with an infected animal and wash your body more often.
In order to prevent infectionpseudotum with existing pets, disinfection of clothes and bedding should be carried out. It will also be necessary to treat your pets regularly from this disease.
It is worth noting that the symptoms of the disease, whichcause mites in babies, are very strong. When infecting a scabies parasite of children, virtually all of the skin is affected, and not only those areas that are characteristic of the adult form of the disease.
Outwardly, the disease manifests itself in the form of a rash,similar to hives. Its first symptoms become noticeable as early as 3-8 days after infection. The initial sign of childhood scabies is itching, which spreads throughout the body. After, first on the hands and stomach, there are eruptions, having the appearance of papular formations.
Infection with scabies mites children suffer very hard. They begin to scratch the rash. As a result, in its place there are purulent crusts, which indicate a chronic infection.
Babies suffering from scabies are restless andare capricious. But parents should do everything to exclude the child's combing of the skin. For example, you can put cotton gloves on your baby, and also cut off his fingernails shortly.
Such a disease can occur in infants. In this case, the rash spreads not only in the area of the hands and abdomen, but also passes over to the face and head.
Very elderly people are also vulnerable to scabies. They may have no tick movements and rashes, but they will have an itchy crust on the body.
It occurs only in the case whenlate symptoms of scabies were identified, and the treatment of the disease was not initiated in a timely manner. In this case, the ailment has time to pass into a complicated form. At the same time, it becomes even more difficult to recognize the disease. After all, its signs are accompanied by symptoms of complications. This is dermatitis or pyoderma, and sometimes eczema or urticaria.
Complication of scabies occurs as a result ofattachment to the damaged skin of the microbial flora. Most often, this is observed in a typical form of the disease, accompanied by severe itching. Often, complications are observed in children who scratch their eruptions. In the resulting lesions, the pathogenic microflora also enters.
With this form of the disease, furuncles are treated in parallel - pustular formations. In the absence of therapy, there is a danger of even more extensive infection.
The doctor can determine the presence of the diseasebased on the symptoms of the disease, epidemiological data, as well as the results of laboratory studies. The last point is especially relevant in cases where the overall clinical picture of the pathology is somewhat blurred. Laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of scabies is performed using the following methods:
The doctor, to whom the patient complains of skin itching,always must exclude scabies. This is especially true when all members of a family or an organized group experience discomfort.
A reliable confirmation of the diagnosis isdetection of itch moves. However, in any case, this channel should be opened with a scalpel covered with oily substance. In this case, the blade must be directed along the itch canal. The thus obtained scraping is placed under the glass and examined under a microscope.
The most reliable results are obtained whenscrapes of not yet combed moves, located in the spaces between the fingers. But the easiest is the itch channels are found when the skin is dyed with iodine. In this case, the strokes will appear in the form of brown strips against a light brown color, in which the healthy skin will appear. Doctors abroad use ink for these purposes.
In almost all cases, scabies are detected with an increase in 600 times the affected areas using a video-dermatoscope.
It is worth remembering that the disease itselfcan not pass. She will bother a person for a long period, periodically exacerbating. That is why, if symptoms are found, scabies and treatment in adults and children should be started immediately. This will also exclude the development of its severe form.
What to do in order to return a personhealth? For this it is sufficient to take all necessary measures to destroy the tick and its eggs. This can be easily achieved by using local facilities. However, one should never engage in self-medication. If you have symptoms of scabies, you should contact a dermatologist who will prescribe adequate therapy.
The following drugs are used to treat this infectious disease:
How to achieve the most effective result in the treatment of scabies? To do this, you need to follow certain rules:
All ointments from scabies are rubbed into the skin with a specialthoroughness. When applying them, avoid areas in the hair area on the head, as well as on the face. Particular attention is paid to the hands and the space between the fingers, since the localization of parasites occurs, as a rule, in these places.
Children to ensure that scabies do not develop into a purulent infection, treat the scalp on the head and face. It is important that the used product does not hit the baby in the eyes or in the mouth.
The prognosis of scabies treatment is usually favorable. In the event that the symptoms of the disease are detected in a timely manner and the therapy is organized correctly, 100% of the patients are cured.