Dysbacteriosis in infants: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Most parents look forward tothe birth of their crumbs. To this event they are preparing, buying diapers, nipples, bottles and other trifles. All this moms and dads carefully wash, wash, iron, sterilize, so that their child does not have health problems. But, according to statistics, every second family faces such a problem as a dysbacteriosis in infants. Many wonder where this illness could have come from, because the child is undergoing careful care, and all recommendations of the pediatrician are scrupulously fulfilled. Unfortunately, dysbiosis in infants is not always associated with impaired hygiene or feeding. Curious fact - in European countries such a disease does not exist. More precisely, there is a violation of bowel functions in children, but this is not considered a disease. In the ICD, there is no dysbacteriosis. But Russian doctors persistently put such a diagnosis to every second baby. If our children have this ailment, let's figure out what affects its appearance, how it manifests itself, how to treat it.

Where from the digestive tract of the child are the microbes taken

The baby's organs begin to form at the stageembryo, but in this period, they are protected by the placenta and the mother's immune system. The first acquaintance with the outside world and microbes inhabiting it occurs at the moment of birth. It was then in a sterile stomach and intestines baby rush hundreds of microorganisms that live in the vagina every woman.

bacteria in the intestine

But this does not mean that it will immediately appearInfantile dysbiosis. There are many "good" bacteria among bacteria. They stabilize the child's process of digestion and assimilation of food, control the number of pathogenic bacteria.

Expansion of microbes, which began in the birth canalwomen, does not cease for a second, because the kid in one way or another contacts with the medical staff of the hospital, breathes hospital air, undergoes medical procedures. Do not forget about the visit of the woman in childbirth by relatives who are in the ward from the street and who before had had contact with different people.

In fact, a sterile kid is vulnerable to an avalanche of microscopic creatures seeking to penetrate into his body.

They settle in his mouth, esophagus, stomach andintestines. In the first hours it is simple and optional (can live with oxygen, and without it) anaerobes. By the first week their ranks are replenished with archaeans and other protists. Finally, the process of formation of the microflora of a small man is completed approximately three months after its appearance. A healthy child in the intestine is:

  • Bifidobacteria.
  • Lactobacillus.
  • E. coli E. coli.
  • Klebsiella.
  • Some mushrooms.

Colostrum

Excellent prevention of dysbiosis in infantsis the first attachment to the maternal breast. About 30 years ago, in the maternity homes, women were given babies only on the second-third day. Now put the kids to the chest is forced already in the first hours after childbirth. As such, milk is not yet available in women, only colostrum. This product is rich in useful lacto- and bifidobacteria, which are very necessary for the baby's intestines. Also in colostrum, we found:

  • Immunoglobulins.
  • T-lymphocytes.
  • Live lymphocytes-macrophages.
  • Neutrophils.
  • Leukocytes (produce interferon).
  • Oligosaccharides (do not allow "bad" bacteria to attach to the mucous of the digestive tract).
  • Lactoferrin (helps iron ions to be absorbed by the walls of the intestine, depriving pathogenic organisms of the ability to develop).
  • Enzymes peroxidase (destroy the shell of bacteria).

Scientists have established that the joint activity of all the above cells and structures successfully resists such microbes:

  • Clostridia.
  • Salmonella.
  • Streptococci.
  • Bordetella (cause whooping cough).
  • Intestinal bacillus (pathogenic).
  • Cholera vibrio.
  • Rotavirus.
  • Herpes.
  • Mushrooms Candida.
  • Enteroviruses.
  • Pathogens of dysentery.
  • Coxsackie viruses, poliomyelitis, hemagglutinating encephalitis, RSV).

Primary and secondary dysbiosis

From the above, it can be understood that in the intestinethe child is constantly present two hostile "armies". One of them is useful cells, proteins and microorganisms. The second is bacteria, fungi and viruses, which cause dangerous diseases. Dysbacteriosis of the intestine in the baby can not begin, while the first "army" controls the second, maintaining a certain balance in the microflora.

symptoms of dysbiosis

As soon as it is disturbed, pathogenic microbes instantly begin to multiply, form colonies, penetrate into the mucous membranes, disrupt the normal course of the processes of digestion and assimilation of food.

Must meet the norm and quantityuseful, and especially conditionally-pathogenic bacteria. If they are few or too many, the child also has problems with the intestines. Violation of the balance between beneficial and pathogenic microbes is the main cause of dysbiosis in infants. But why is the balance broken? There are already over a dozen reasons.

Note that dysbiosis can be of two types:

  • Primary (before the appearance of bowel dysfunction, the child was not sick at all).
  • Secondary (appears on the background of another disease).

It is sometimes difficult to draw a clear line between them, especially if the child does not have an infectious disease. In general, the intestinal dysbiosis in infants occurs under the following conditions:

  • Difficult childbirth with complications.
  • A problem pregnancy, during which the woman was treated with various medications, including antibiotics.
  • Acceptance of a woman hormonal medication and other products, with milk falling into the digestive tract of the baby.
  • Refusal of breastfeeding.
  • Early introduction of complementary foods.
  • Not suitable specifically for this child is the formula.
  • Immaturity of the digestive tract of the baby. It is more common in premature infants.
  • Bad ecology.
  • Long stay in the hospital (this increases the risk of catching pathogenic microbes).
  • Diseases of the mother (mastitis, bakvaginosis, dysbacteriosis, allergy).
  • Diseases of the baby. A lot of them. The main can include ORVI, rickets, anemia, allergies, bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus.
  • Treatment of a child or mother with antibiotics.

Classification

diarrhea with dysbiosis

There are four degrees of dysbiosis:

  • The first (compensated). Its important feature - the child's well-being does not cause fear. He eats, wakes without crying, sleeps peacefully. At this stage, signs of dysbiosis in infants are unstable weight gain, poor appetite, increased gas formation, and colorless (weakly stained) feces. Malfunctions of the mother or child cause such disorders.
  • The second (subcompensated). This degree requires treatment with medicines, since it is caused by the activity of pathogenic microorganisms that have proliferated in the intestine. Stool analysis at grade 2 reveals the presence of staphylococcus or yeast-like fungi. Sometimes there are also proteins in it. How is dysbacteriosis of the 2nd degree manifested in infants? The main symptom is a change in stool. It acquires a green tint and an unpleasant smell. Often white lumps of undigested milk are visible in it. The child suffers pain in the tummy, gases, diarrhea, because of what he becomes capricious, refuses to eat, restlessly asleep. Constipation with this degree of disease is rare.
  • The third (decompensated). Most often occurs when parents at the first appearance of dysbiosis tried to heal the baby by their methods and released the situation out of control. All the signs of dysbiosis in infants, characteristic of the previous stage, are amplified: the child experiences abdominal pain, he is tormented by gases, diarrhea. Feces acquire a stable green tint and the smell of a rotten egg. They also have fragments of undigested food, a pole, mucus is added, and sometimes blood veins. The child is very weak, almost nothing to eat. Prolonged diarrhea can lead to dehydration. This is manifested in skin turgor and in weak muscle activity. For babies, dehydration is deadly. Therefore, a child with diarrhea, observed for several days, must be hospitalized.
  • Fourth. It's rare to get to this stage. Microorganisms from the intestines of the child spread to other organs, causing their inflammation. The patient has bright signs of intoxication - vomiting, fever, persistent diarrhea (fecal masses practically unformed, mucocutaneous-watery). Without urgent resuscitation, the infant dies.

Breast-feeding

Undoubtedly, the priority is feeding the baby with breast milk. It contains vitamins, mother's antibodies, providing passive immunity to the baby.

breast-feeding

But also on breastfeeding dysbacteriosisthe baby is diagnosed quite often. The main reason is the imperfect work of the digestive organs, which is fully adjusted to three months. Often the disease occurs due to such reasons:

  • Non-compliance with hygiene. Microbes can enter the body of a baby with a dirty nipple, a bottle, a pacifier, toys, other objects that the child touches. Hygiene should be observed by all who are in contact with the baby. Many microorganisms do not harm adults, since they have already developed immunity. But the child has no strong immune defense.
  • Diseases of the mother or baby. If this happens, doctors try not to prescribe antibiotics. These drugs in the intestine kill both "bad" microorganisms, and "good". In infants, dysbacteriosis after antibiotics is observed in most cases. To prevent this from happening, the child during the treatment is prescribed to prescribe drugs that protect the intestinal microflora.
  • Mom's poor nutrition. Women who breastfeed should remember that the well-being of the baby depends on their diet. Therefore, from the menu it is necessary to exclude many, even useful products, which can cause disruption of the intestine's crumbs. This includes plums, apricots, strawberries, grapes, smoked products, pickles, cucumbers, cabbage, coffee and other products. Very often the baby has problems with the intestines after the mother removes "dangerous" foods from her menu.

Symptoms of dysbiosis in a breastfed infants may be as follows:

  • Feces of foamy nature. Often there is mucus in it. This is one of the main symptoms that manifests about the problem in the intestine.
  • Rumbling in the tummy.
  • In the process of feeding or immediately after it, frequent regurgitation, sometimes resulting in vomiting.
  • Weak weight gain or loss.
  • Caprice, restlessness of the child for no apparent reason (the diaper is dry, the baby is fed).

In some children, dysbiosis is accompanied by a rash. It can cover large areas of the body or look like separate pimples.

Artificial feeding

In the maternity home, nurses and doctors are watching mothers put their children to their breasts. At home, some parents immediately transfer the child to artificial feeding.

artificial feeding

Now the composition of both domestic and importedMilk mixtures are made as close as possible to breast milk. They include a balanced complex of vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, proteins, other useful substances. Therefore, modern children, who receive such food, grow up healthy.

But dysbiosis in infants on the artificialbreastfeeding is diagnosed much more often than their peers receiving mother's milk. This is due to the fact that while our technologies are not able to accurately reproduce what nature creates. So, the mixture can not serve as the source of many beneficial bacteria that reach the baby with breast milk. The microflora in the intestine of the "artificial" is depleted, since it is represented only by E. coli. This greatly complicates the process of assimilation of food.

The benefit of artificial feeding is only that you can accurately know the volume of what the child ate (on a scale on a bottle), that is, it is better to control the weight gain.

Symptoms of dysbiosis in a baby growing on milk mixtures:

  • Problems with the stool. Some babies have diarrhea. The feces become watery and colorless. Other babies suffer from constipation and increased gas production. For this reason, they often, as they say, shout, knit, bend. According to reviews of mothers who refused to breast-feed, constipation in their babies are much more likely to be diarrhea.
  • Regurgitation, even if after feeding the baby is kept "a column".
  • Further development of the disease can cause temperature and rash on the body.

Lure

Often dysbacteriosis in infants, both on breastfeeding and on artificial feeding, begins because of premature introduction of complementary foods:

  • Fruit juices and mashed potatoes.
  • Sour-milk products.
  • Eggs.
  • Vegetables.
  • Meat.

All these products are very useful, rich in vitaminsand microelements, but the child's body should get acquainted with them when his digestive system is already strong enough and can absorb new food.

terms of introduction of complementary foods

On all foods for children offeredin the trade network, not only the expiration date and composition, but also the age from which they can be introduced into the diet. It is necessary to observe these terms, and also understand that the organism of every person - big or small, has individual characteristics. Therefore, what is perfectly suited to one child, can provoke a violation of bowel functions in another.

Diagnostics

When a child develops diarrhea, as a rule, pediatricians are prescribed to take an analysis for dysbiosis. The infants are collected from the diaper and the biomaterial is taken to the laboratory.

Bakposev can identify about 25 species of bacteria, including useful and conditionally pathogenic species, as well as determine the percentage of each type of microorganism present in the intestines of the baby.

Also, in the results of the analysis for dysbacteriosis in the infant, the ratio of "good" and "bad" microorganisms is indicated, the resistance of the latter to antibiotics is revealed.

In addition to bakposseva, another analysis is carried out - a coprogram. It is used to determine if there is inflammation in the intestine, as well as the degree of digestion of food fragments present in the stool.

The main disadvantage of bacteriosia isthe duration of preparation of this analysis, which is not less than 7 days (the bacteria must grow and multiply). During this time the baby has time to undergo treatment. Therefore, the results are often irrelevant.

Another drawback of this analysis is that it gives an idea of ​​the microflora of only the lower part of the intestine, not showing what is going on in the whole organ.

Now in some medical centers carry outexcretory respiratory test. It is based on the interpretation of the chemical elements exhaled by the child. This is done by gas-liquid chromatography. The fact is that each type of microbe in the process of life emits into the environment the substances peculiar to it only. They are determined in the exhaled air. The result of the test is only a few hours. It shows whether there are microbes in the child in the gastrointestinal tract, what kinds and in what quantity. Such an analysis is expensive, but it helps to begin treatment of dysbacteriosis in infants without delay. Reviews of parents about this method of research are ambiguous. Its merits are painless holding and short waiting time for the result. As a disadvantage noted neinformativnost test (often there are errors) and the complexity of its conduct for infants.

It is advisable to repeat the bak-treatment to know how much the microflora has recovered in the intestines of the crumbs. Biomass is taken 12 hours or more after taking an antibiotic, and with prebiotic therapy - a month after its end.

analysis for dysbiosis

Treatment of dysbacteriosis in infants

Therapeutic events for young patients are always held in the complex. The child is prescribed the following medicines:

  • "Bacteriophage". The drug is produced for each microbe separately. It includes polyvalent bacteriophages, which destroy only dangerous bacteria and do not touch useful ones.
  • Sorbents (to remove from the body the products of the life of microbes). Preparations of choice: "Carbofan", "Polysorbent", "Smecta", "Mycosorb", "Enterosorb".
  • Enzymes. Their role is to help normalize digestion. Drugs of choice: "Panzinorm", "Oraza", "Pancreatin", "Festal", "Holenzyme".
  • Antibiotics. Appointed strictly according to the indications. Drugs of choice: Diflucan, Macropen, Chlorophyllipt, Erythromycin, Meksaz.
  • Parallel to antibiotics, children are prescribed "Dialac", "Lactobacterin", which protect the beneficial intestinal microflora from destruction by antibiotics.
  • Probiotics. They restore the disturbed balance in the intestines. Preparations: "Lactobacterin", "Enterol", "Linex", "Bifikol".
  • Prebiotics. They activate in the body the production of the right bacteria. Preparations: "Lactose", "Lactulose".

When treating dysbacteriosis in infants, doctors can prescribe physiotherapy, phyto-and vitamin therapy.

It is recommended not to give the baby in this periodno new food, do not change the mixture, observe hygiene, often walk with the baby, since fresh air and sunlight contribute to strengthening immunity and renewing the cells of the intestinal mucosa.

Prevention

Care for the baby's health starts at the moment of making a decision about his conception. A woman must undergo a test, cure all her illnesses.

Being pregnant, she must regularly take all the tests, follow the doctor's recommendations, monitor her diet and daily schedule.

For infants, prevention of dysbiosis is:

  • Applying to the chest in the first hours after birth.
  • Hygiene.
  • Breast-feeding.
  • Walking on the street.
  • Proper nutrition and health of the mother.
  • Daily bathing (strengthen immunity).
  • Timely introduction of complementary foods.

Observing these recommendations, you can significantly reduce the risk of dysbiosis.

Similar news
What are the symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus?
What is dysbiosis?
Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
How dangerous is the dysbiosis in the child:
Dysbacteriosis - symptoms and treatment
Gardnerellez: treatment, causes, symptoms.
Cough in the baby: how to treat a baby
Cough in the baby? Treatment depends on
Lactose insufficiency in the baby:
Popular posts
Follow:
beauty
up