Most parents look forward tothe birth of their crumbs. To this event they are preparing, buying diapers, nipples, bottles and other trifles. All this moms and dads carefully wash, wash, iron, sterilize, so that their child does not have health problems. But, according to statistics, every second family faces such a problem as a dysbacteriosis in infants. Many wonder where this illness could have come from, because the child is undergoing careful care, and all recommendations of the pediatrician are scrupulously fulfilled. Unfortunately, dysbiosis in infants is not always associated with impaired hygiene or feeding. Curious fact - in European countries such a disease does not exist. More precisely, there is a violation of bowel functions in children, but this is not considered a disease. In the ICD, there is no dysbacteriosis. But Russian doctors persistently put such a diagnosis to every second baby. If our children have this ailment, let's figure out what affects its appearance, how it manifests itself, how to treat it.
The baby's organs begin to form at the stageembryo, but in this period, they are protected by the placenta and the mother's immune system. The first acquaintance with the outside world and microbes inhabiting it occurs at the moment of birth. It was then in a sterile stomach and intestines baby rush hundreds of microorganisms that live in the vagina every woman.
But this does not mean that it will immediately appearInfantile dysbiosis. There are many "good" bacteria among bacteria. They stabilize the child's process of digestion and assimilation of food, control the number of pathogenic bacteria.
Expansion of microbes, which began in the birth canalwomen, does not cease for a second, because the kid in one way or another contacts with the medical staff of the hospital, breathes hospital air, undergoes medical procedures. Do not forget about the visit of the woman in childbirth by relatives who are in the ward from the street and who before had had contact with different people.
In fact, a sterile kid is vulnerable to an avalanche of microscopic creatures seeking to penetrate into his body.
They settle in his mouth, esophagus, stomach andintestines. In the first hours it is simple and optional (can live with oxygen, and without it) anaerobes. By the first week their ranks are replenished with archaeans and other protists. Finally, the process of formation of the microflora of a small man is completed approximately three months after its appearance. A healthy child in the intestine is:
Excellent prevention of dysbiosis in infantsis the first attachment to the maternal breast. About 30 years ago, in the maternity homes, women were given babies only on the second-third day. Now put the kids to the chest is forced already in the first hours after childbirth. As such, milk is not yet available in women, only colostrum. This product is rich in useful lacto- and bifidobacteria, which are very necessary for the baby's intestines. Also in colostrum, we found:
Scientists have established that the joint activity of all the above cells and structures successfully resists such microbes:
From the above, it can be understood that in the intestinethe child is constantly present two hostile "armies". One of them is useful cells, proteins and microorganisms. The second is bacteria, fungi and viruses, which cause dangerous diseases. Dysbacteriosis of the intestine in the baby can not begin, while the first "army" controls the second, maintaining a certain balance in the microflora.
As soon as it is disturbed, pathogenic microbes instantly begin to multiply, form colonies, penetrate into the mucous membranes, disrupt the normal course of the processes of digestion and assimilation of food.
Must meet the norm and quantityuseful, and especially conditionally-pathogenic bacteria. If they are few or too many, the child also has problems with the intestines. Violation of the balance between beneficial and pathogenic microbes is the main cause of dysbiosis in infants. But why is the balance broken? There are already over a dozen reasons.
Note that dysbiosis can be of two types:
It is sometimes difficult to draw a clear line between them, especially if the child does not have an infectious disease. In general, the intestinal dysbiosis in infants occurs under the following conditions:
There are four degrees of dysbiosis:
Undoubtedly, the priority is feeding the baby with breast milk. It contains vitamins, mother's antibodies, providing passive immunity to the baby.
But also on breastfeeding dysbacteriosisthe baby is diagnosed quite often. The main reason is the imperfect work of the digestive organs, which is fully adjusted to three months. Often the disease occurs due to such reasons:
Symptoms of dysbiosis in a breastfed infants may be as follows:
In some children, dysbiosis is accompanied by a rash. It can cover large areas of the body or look like separate pimples.
In the maternity home, nurses and doctors are watching mothers put their children to their breasts. At home, some parents immediately transfer the child to artificial feeding.
Now the composition of both domestic and importedMilk mixtures are made as close as possible to breast milk. They include a balanced complex of vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, proteins, other useful substances. Therefore, modern children, who receive such food, grow up healthy.
But dysbiosis in infants on the artificialbreastfeeding is diagnosed much more often than their peers receiving mother's milk. This is due to the fact that while our technologies are not able to accurately reproduce what nature creates. So, the mixture can not serve as the source of many beneficial bacteria that reach the baby with breast milk. The microflora in the intestine of the "artificial" is depleted, since it is represented only by E. coli. This greatly complicates the process of assimilation of food.
The benefit of artificial feeding is only that you can accurately know the volume of what the child ate (on a scale on a bottle), that is, it is better to control the weight gain.
Symptoms of dysbiosis in a baby growing on milk mixtures:
Often dysbacteriosis in infants, both on breastfeeding and on artificial feeding, begins because of premature introduction of complementary foods:
All these products are very useful, rich in vitaminsand microelements, but the child's body should get acquainted with them when his digestive system is already strong enough and can absorb new food.
On all foods for children offeredin the trade network, not only the expiration date and composition, but also the age from which they can be introduced into the diet. It is necessary to observe these terms, and also understand that the organism of every person - big or small, has individual characteristics. Therefore, what is perfectly suited to one child, can provoke a violation of bowel functions in another.
When a child develops diarrhea, as a rule, pediatricians are prescribed to take an analysis for dysbiosis. The infants are collected from the diaper and the biomaterial is taken to the laboratory.
Bakposev can identify about 25 species of bacteria, including useful and conditionally pathogenic species, as well as determine the percentage of each type of microorganism present in the intestines of the baby.
Also, in the results of the analysis for dysbacteriosis in the infant, the ratio of "good" and "bad" microorganisms is indicated, the resistance of the latter to antibiotics is revealed.
In addition to bakposseva, another analysis is carried out - a coprogram. It is used to determine if there is inflammation in the intestine, as well as the degree of digestion of food fragments present in the stool.
The main disadvantage of bacteriosia isthe duration of preparation of this analysis, which is not less than 7 days (the bacteria must grow and multiply). During this time the baby has time to undergo treatment. Therefore, the results are often irrelevant.
Another drawback of this analysis is that it gives an idea of the microflora of only the lower part of the intestine, not showing what is going on in the whole organ.
Now in some medical centers carry outexcretory respiratory test. It is based on the interpretation of the chemical elements exhaled by the child. This is done by gas-liquid chromatography. The fact is that each type of microbe in the process of life emits into the environment the substances peculiar to it only. They are determined in the exhaled air. The result of the test is only a few hours. It shows whether there are microbes in the child in the gastrointestinal tract, what kinds and in what quantity. Such an analysis is expensive, but it helps to begin treatment of dysbacteriosis in infants without delay. Reviews of parents about this method of research are ambiguous. Its merits are painless holding and short waiting time for the result. As a disadvantage noted neinformativnost test (often there are errors) and the complexity of its conduct for infants.
It is advisable to repeat the bak-treatment to know how much the microflora has recovered in the intestines of the crumbs. Biomass is taken 12 hours or more after taking an antibiotic, and with prebiotic therapy - a month after its end.
Therapeutic events for young patients are always held in the complex. The child is prescribed the following medicines:
When treating dysbacteriosis in infants, doctors can prescribe physiotherapy, phyto-and vitamin therapy.
It is recommended not to give the baby in this periodno new food, do not change the mixture, observe hygiene, often walk with the baby, since fresh air and sunlight contribute to strengthening immunity and renewing the cells of the intestinal mucosa.
Care for the baby's health starts at the moment of making a decision about his conception. A woman must undergo a test, cure all her illnesses.
Being pregnant, she must regularly take all the tests, follow the doctor's recommendations, monitor her diet and daily schedule.
For infants, prevention of dysbiosis is:
Observing these recommendations, you can significantly reduce the risk of dysbiosis.