The Republic of Latvia as an Independent Statehas existed for more than 20 years, until that moment Latvia was part of the Union of Soviets. During the time that passed after the collapse of the Soviet Union, much has changed in Latvia's economic, political and social situation. Some residents are happy with the changes that have occurred, others - they want the best. There was also an opinion that the percentage of indigenous Latvians is very small compared to people of other nationalities living in the country. Some people call Latvia a country of emigrants. The population of Latvia is constantly replenished by emigrants, but the number of indigenous people is not decreasing. According to the country's legal experts, the state can not be compared with Australia, where newcomers crowd out indigenous people. The Republic is considered to be a multinational state.
According to the statements of the Central Statistical Officeof the country's administration, officially the population of Latvia is less than two million people at the end of May 2014. Experts believe that this figure is catastrophic and can affect the very existence of the state. The American statistical organization has put this country on the third place on population reduction. The reasons for such a rapid reduction in the number of people are due to the fact that population growth has a negative value, that is, the number of deaths exceeds the number of those who were born every day. Another problem that affects growth is that out of every thousand people, four people are migrating somewhere. People go to families in search of decent earnings, a decent life and just for the sake of adventure. The population of Latvia is dispersed over its territory with a density of about 34 people per square kilometer. Urban population in 2010-2011 is almost 30% higher than rural: in the urban zone, about 70% of the population live, in villages - 32%.
The population of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia is decreasingThe reason is that a lot of families from the Baltic countries are leaving to live in other countries of Europe or Russia. Experts believe that emigration has become the norm in the state. In April 2014, a conference on emigration in the Baltic and Eastern European countries was held on the basis of the Latvian University. This problem worries many scientists, and in search of a common opinion they discussed it aloud. At this conference, Latvia and Lithuania were named one of the most mobile countries in Europe, members of the European Union. Emigration has become a problem for the demographic situation, because of it the system of social guarantees is collapsing, the economic situation of countries is being undermined. According to statistical data, people from the working sphere, the so-called middle-ranking workers, are most often decided to move. These people are ready to work, but for more decent salaries than they can offer in their home country.
The population of Latvia, however, like other countries,directly depends on the level of fertility and mortality. The Center for Statistical Management announced that the birth rate in the country continues to grow: according to the results of 2013, the number of children born compared with the previous one increased by almost five hundred children (from February to December 2013, 18,800 new residents were born). But, despite these indicators, the population growth continues to be negative - along with the birth rate, the death rate also increases. In 2013, over 26,000 people died in the country, so the death rate exceeded the birth rate by 7745 people.
Often in the press recently sounded the words"Latvia", "population", "the number of 2014". All this is due to the fact that, despite the economic development of the country, the number of people living in it falls every year. Many condemn the country's accession to the EU, seeking reasons in this fact, others associate the demographic problem with women's unwillingness to bear children. Women in the country do not want to give birth to many children. In each family, on average, one or two children are born, few of whom are solved for more children. In fact, for an hour the population of Latvia is growing by 2.3 people by birth (one child is born every 1556.43 seconds). At the same time, 3.2 people die every hour.
If we compare the population in Latvia inDepending on sex, the number of women in the country exceeds the number of men. As of July-August this year, the male population has not crossed the mark of 1 million people, women in the state are slightly more than a million. The ratio of men and women in percentage terms - 46 to 54. Although the ratio of births, boys exceed girls by 0.054. According to the 2011 population census, the male population is becoming significantly less in the age category of citizens from 15 to 64, and in the age group over 65 years, only 0.48 men per woman.
The last time the official populationLatvia was determined in 2011. This happened by rewriting all residents. The 2011 census was the first since the country joined the European Union in 2004. This procedure was carried out at a high level using new questionnaires, if desired, the questionnaires prepared for the census could be filled in via the Internet: the number and series of passports, the identification code of the placeholder, were entered in the sheet. The population census data of Latvia were calculated as of March 1, 2011.
Latvia, the population in whichdecreases due to the emigration of citizens to other countries, is itself a multiethnic country, ready to receive and warm people who want to start a new life. The indigenous population of the country, Latvians, is just over half the citizens. In percentage terms, Latvians in the ethnic composition occupy 59.6%. In second place in the national composition of Latvia - the Russians. They make up 27.57% of all inhabitants of the country. In the Baltic state there are also natives of Belarus and Ukraine: Belarusians make up just over 3%, and Ukrainians - up to 3% of all residents. The ethnic composition of the country includes a small group of Lithuanians and Poles, respectively 1.33% and 2.37%. The national composition does not end on this list: Jews, Greeks, Kazakhs, Romanians make up the remaining percentage of residents.
The population of Latvia is small, realthe situation of the situation with the number of slightly lower than the official. But, despite all the problems, Latvia is on the 47th place in the ranking of the states that are considered quite good for living. This country is a member of the Schengen area, since 2004 one of the countries of the European Union, therefore wishing to become part of Europe choose Latvia as a place of residence. Most of the emigrants from the CIS countries and the Russian Federation are trying to become citizens of this small state.
The life expectancy of people in Latvia is about 72 years, while women in the country live an average of 11 years longer than men: the life expectancy of the female population is 78 years, the male life is 67 years.
According to statistical data, the numberof the population in Latvia is significantly reduced every year. Experts argue that the number of people living in the country will never exceed 2 million people. Tendencies to increase its numbers have not been observed in the last 20 years, so it is not worthwhile hoping that in times of crisis births will exceed deaths. Since 2012, the rate of population decline has slowed significantly due to an increase in the birth rate in all regions of the country. Particularly, the birth rate in Riga increased by 7% and in the Riga region by 3.1%. According to the CSO in Latvia, fertility rates are quite high in 12 regions, but mortality is not decreasing. In order to increase the number of people, it is necessary that every family has at least three or four children.