The first sports facility appeared indistant antiquity. According to archaeologists, people started building such objects long before the onset of our era. A higher degree of development of the construction of facilities for sporting competitions was received in Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece. The grandiose nature of such construction and the feasibility of the erected engineering structures are indicated by their partially preserved ruins. Such a sports facility could accommodate tens of thousands of people.
Up to the beginning of the 20th century in constructionLong-term stagnation was observed in sports facilities. Only a little over a hundred years ago this break was replaced by a stormy interest in such objects. It was caused by an increase in the number of people engaged in mental work and wanting to compensate for their low mobility.
Such a sports facility as a stadium, for the first timewas built in 1903 in the United States. And already in the next ten years in this country the construction of five more such objects was completed. Since 1920, until 1926, the number of stadiums in the United States has increased fivefold.
The beginning of the rapid construction of sports facilitieswas laid after the resumption of the tradition of the Olympic Games. From 1896 to the present time they took place 22 times. At the same time for each Olympiad new sports facilities were built. And it's not surprising. The fact is that such games have always been an event of great cultural and social significance.
The most visible pages in the development of suchbuildings began in the postwar years. It was a period when in Rome there were such complexes as Palazzo and Palacetto del. At the same time, a sports facility was built in Tokyo, like Koma Zava. In Mexico City, a unique University stadium was built. It was also built and a huge Sports Palace. A major event in the social and cultural life of the planet was the discovery of such objects:
- the Munich sports complex "Oberwiesenfil";
- Montreal track and Olympic stadium;
- the Moscow Central Stadium named after Lenin;
- Leningrad Stadium. Kirov;
- Kyiv's NSC Olimpiyskiy;
Yerevan Hrazdan Stadium, etc.
There are different types of sports facilities. First of all, they are divided into main, auxiliary and premises for equipment and spectators.
The main part of any sports facilityis the main object. Its purpose is to organize the competitions, as well as the training process. According to certain building rules, such sports facilities are erected. Norms developed and approved at the legislative level regulate the size of the facilities, the use of certain materials for coatings, etc. In addition, according to the rules of the competition, such facilities must be provided with proper equipment and inventory, tags, etc. The main objects , in turn, are divided into open, not having a canopy, and covered.
In the areas for visitors there are devices for spectators. Such facilities are located in close proximity to the main zone and premises for staff.
Physical culture and sports facilitiesare classified and for their functional purpose. In this case, the assignment of objects to a certain group depends on whether they were erected for the competition for which sport. However, both open sports facilities and those under the canopy can have different purposes. They can hold competitions not only one, but also several sports. In the latter case, such objects are considered universal. They either consist of several separate buildings located on the same territory, or they have the possibility of transforming the equipment.
According to existing building codes and regulationsany sports facility should be an element of the general system of domestic and cultural services for residents of the locality. And there is also a certain classification of such objects. They are divided into:
Inside residential complexes, flatathletic facilities. They are designed by complexes designed for different age categories, and placed in walking distance in the range of 50 to 500 meters.
According to existing regulations, there are nine square meters of playgrounds, bicycle lanes, and exercise areas for every thousand of the population of the neighborhood.
Inter-district structures aresports centers or park areas. They are designed in twenty-minute transport accessibility. The area of such territories is 0.14 hectares for every thousand inhabitants. The structure of these facilities can include playgrounds and football fields, outdoor swimming pools and gyms.
What facilities will be built on the territoryThis or that settlement depends on the number of its inhabitants. If the city is small (up to 500 thousand people), then sports facilities of urban importance should be combined with district and inter-district ones. With a larger number of residents, separate structures are being designed. The city sports centers are located in a thirty-minute drive by transport. The area of such objects for each one thousand inhabitants is assumed equal to 0.11 hectares.
Among this type of sports facilities are fields and playgrounds, cross-country or ski tracks. All of them are designed for competitions and outdoor activities.
The most common plane sportsstructures - playing fields, surrounded by track and field athletics tracks and places for jumping. Certain requirements for sports facilities of this type include landscaping of the nearby area. As a rule, these are protective belts of plantations, located along the perimeter of these objects. The width of such green areas should be at least ten meters.
All game fields located on the territoryflat structures, are grouped according to sports. At the same time, they must have dimensions and all necessary structures, equipment, as well as sufficient lighting.
To date, an increasing number of peoplespends his time at sports venues. The main goal of their studies is to improve their own well-being. In this regard, such facilities as sports and recreation facilities, play an important role in the life of each locality. They do not serve for professional training. They are visited for health improvement and maintenance of form. To such facilities, except for all the above, include saunas and baths, massage rooms, mud and hydropathic institutions. Very popular today are types of health-improving sports activities, like aerobic gymnastics, fitness and athletics. For them, small areas, well heated rooms with intensive artificial and natural lighting are allocated. As the equipment a complex of gymnastic and athletic shells is used.
After the building is handed over by the builders forfurther operation, the facility is taken by SES employees. After all, the health status of these places depends on the effect of the training conducted, as well as the health of people involved.
Sex or treadmills fitness centers should not have protrusions and potholes. The material for their coating must be used a bit elastic and well-washable.
In the halls of indoor facilities should be maintainedoptimum temperature and humidity conditions. This is an important condition for maintaining the health of people in them. At a certain level, there must be a speed of air movement. Its value is not more than 0.5 meters per second. It is desirable that all gyms have natural lighting. In the dark at night in such rooms should include lights reflected or scattered light. In order to take the necessary security measures, the medical center of sports facilities is located in the immediate vicinity of the hall.
A number of hygiene requirements areequipment and inventory for training and competition. It should be made of good quality material, be in good order and comply with existing standards in weight and shape.
Planar sports facilities should bearranged with the use of a special coating. This should be a smooth non-slip surface that does not contain mechanical inclusions that can lead to injuries.
Certain requirements are imposed on the grass cover of such structures. A green lawn should be thick, low, frost-resistant and resistant not only to frequent haircut, but also to trampling.
The social and economic system of ourThe country has undergone drastic changes in connection with the transition to market conditions. This factor also influenced the management of sports facilities. To date, organizations of the physical culture and health profile for their further development should create a management system that will allow them to have a stable position in the market. Of course, that independence, which is given to sports organizations, has led to the complication of their management and the increase in the amount of work performed by management personnel. The officials of the sports facility are asked to:
- ensuring the free access of citizens to sports and physical culture;
- the fulfillment of all regulatory requirements for taking the necessary measures for the safety of the health and life of the trainees;
- implementation of assistance to the development of sport;
- conducting business activity.