Structure of activity: psychological analysis

The concept of "activity" in psychology isleading place. According to the traditional domestic approach, it is the main condition for the physical and mental development of man. Therefore, it is necessary to consider what is the general structure of activity, which will necessarily be repeated in the individual. It includes the following components:

  • motives and motivations;
  • common goal;
  • actions and ways to achieve the goal (skills);
  • mental properties and processes;
  • result.

The structure of activity includes motivation, which prompts to be active. It is she who helps a person formulate his desires in the final result.

Motives can be different:

  • Organic, which are aimed at meeting the natural (physiological) needs of the individual;
  • functional are satisfied by means of cultural forms of human activity (games, sports, etc.);
  • material are directed to the creation of objects of civilization that will serve natural needs;
  • social (communicative);
  • spiritual (aimed at self-improvement of personality).

But it must be borne in mind that any human activity is poly-motivated, which determines, as a result, its purpose.

The overall structure of activities is carried out by a system of interrelated actions. They contribute to the achievement of a specific task that will help achieve a common goal. There are several classifications of actions.

In their function they can be:

  • emotional, which create the necessary mood;
  • mental and mnestic, guiding and accompanying this process;
  • psychomotor and strong-willed, ensuring achievement of the result of activity.

Actions in their focus:

  • impulsive, which are committed in a state of affect;
  • indicative (theoretical or practical) are aimed at drawing up a plan for achieving the main goal;
  • Performing serve to carry out the planned actions consistently;
  • Corrections are necessary to introduce changes, clarifications and amendments, the application of which will be necessary in case of inaccuracies, errors, deviations and failures;
  • The final ones are reduced to the final checkquality in the performance of all previous actions that must answer a number of questions (How is the goal achieved, what are the costs and means, how to implement it in the future?).

The structure of activity is forced to "work"mental properties and personality processes. Relationships, feelings and knowledge regulate and guide it. Let us consider this in more detail. Knowledge at different levels of reflection will regulate activities. On the basis of sensations and perceptions, the strength of muscles, rhythm and pace of movements are measured. But the solution of mental problems can be guided by concepts and images. It depends on the individual experience of man.

In addition, the success of its implementation will be influenced bythe internal state of man. Any type of activity can cause fatigue, a decrease in physical and mental performance, which appears due to a significant expenditure of resources in the body. As a result, fatigue is formed, which will affect the result of the activity. Very important is a positive attitude towards work. Therefore, adjustment is carried out simultaneously on several levels.

The psychology of activity has now becomeone of the most actively developing industries. As a result, a large number of different directions emerged. They study the specificity of activity in all kinds of work (sports, pedagogical, engineering psychology, and so on).

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