The name of one of the main psychoanalysts and psychiatrists of the late 19th - early 20th centuries, Sigmund Freud, is known or heard by everyone.
A scientist of Austrian origin made a significant contribution not only to the development of psychology, but also influenced other spheres of life in the 20th century, namely medicine, sociology, literature and art.
Freud's views on human naturewere innovative for their time and went against the established concepts. Therefore, the theory put forward by Sigmund Freud caused great resonance among the learned men, someone accepted them, someone denied, but it was impossible to treat them indifferently. Freud's works are still popular.
The scientist is best known as the founderpsychoanalysis. He introduced this concept as a three-component structure of the psyche, which consists of "It", "I", "Super-I". In addition, among the achievements of a psychiatrist:
During his professional activitiesFreud published many works, the total number of which totals 24 volumes. Currently, more books are being published about the professor, doctor of medicine and the winner of the Goethe Prize, than about any other psychiatrist, and films are also being made.
Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 inthe city of Freiberg. Later, the street where the family lived, began to bear the name of the scientist. Here, and passed the first three years of Zygmund's life. In 1859, as a result of the industrial revolution, the family was on the verge of bankruptcy, like most of the city's residents.
The Freud pair moves to Leipzig, and then toVienna. After several years of poverty, the father of Freud Jakob resumed his work, and the family was able to move to a more civilized area, although it was impossible to name their life luxurious.
Learning the future of psychology firstwas engaged in the mother, and later a father who really wanted Sigmund to graduate. Very quickly, parents noticed Sigmund's great potential and tried to warm up and encourage his passion for learning.
At the age of 9, Sigmund Freud entersgymnasium and soon becomes the first student in the class. In the family, special conditions were also created for him. The remaining seven children were forbidden to play instruments or in every way to distract their brother from classes, he, unlike the rest of the family, had his own room.
At the age of 17, Freud successfully graduated from high school. After graduation, he entered the Faculty of Medicine, although he did not feel interest in this profession and never called himself a true doctor.
Training at the University of Vienna, especially inThe first year, it was quite difficult for Zygmund, given the anti-Semitic sentiments. Frequent skirmishes with classmates tempered his character and became prerequisites for an "independent judgment".
The future professor was interested in zoology and, under the guidance of his beloved teacher Karl Klaus, wrote the first article published by the Academy of Sciences.
In recent years, Freud spent most of his time in the knowledge of physiology and writing scientific works. In 1881, Sigmund completed his studies and received his doctorate.
The upcoming marriage on March Bernays demandedSigmund Freud career growth. To open his own business, he lacked experience, so it was decided to practice at the Vienna City Hospital. He chose the field of neurology, working with childhood pathologies of development. It is he who owns the term "infantile cerebral palsy", widely used in modern times. Despite success and achievements in this field, Freud quickly became disillusioned with his work and lost interest.
In 1883, he moved to work in thepsychiatric department, from where his rapid career began. He was completely carried away by his new work and wrote several scientific articles, the main topics of which were cerebral hemiplegia in children and aphasia. However, soon Freud began to overcome dissatisfaction in their own professional achievements and depression.
From 1884 to 1887, Sigmund Freud wroteseveral works on the positive effects of cocaine on the body, and actively distributes it to all of his friends and fiancee, while independently suffering from dependence. In 1887, the harmful influence of cocaine became a universally recognized fact, and this part of the psychologist's biography was silenced.
In 1901 the work of Sigmund Freud was publishedthe title "Psychopathology of everyday life." "The book contains one of the fundamental studies of the Austrian psychoanalyst." The book of small volume, in comparison with other studies of Freud, nevertheless became a classic of the 20th century.
For a long time working with patients withvarious deviations in behavior, defects and pathologies in development, the author comes to the conclusion that they testify to profound disturbances of the psyche, in some cases indicate the presence of a psychoneurosis. This is the idea in the book proves Sigmund Freud.
"Psychopathology of everyday life" contains an analysis of numerous examples of such deviations.
We can say that after the release of "Interpretationdreams "," Psychopathology of everyday life "becomes the second most important scientific work of a psychiatrist.The book proves the topological model of the psyche, namely consciousness - the subconscious - the unconscious, and all this on examples of manifestations of the unconscious in everyday life.
The book "Psychopathology of everyday life"shows that various violations of speech, stammering, reservations, confusion in words are not at all accidental, but are manifested as a result of the suppression of the thought that a person is trying to supersede.
The author does not give concrete examples from the life of his patients, but refers to his own memories, as well as his friends and relatives, who had more than enough of such cases.
Notes on this topic take the first fourchapters of the book "Psychopathology of everyday life". In a single cover, the world saw them in 1904. The work of Freud caused great resonance both in scientific circles and among ordinary inhabitants. Work has become one of the most popular among the masses and further strengthened the authority of the scientist.
In the future, many works onin-depth analysis of the already popular book "Psychopathology of everyday life" (Z. Freud). Description and analysis of their scientific research attracted and interested other scientists of this and related fields.
Freud's book "Psychopathology of everyday life"proves that consciousness is an inseparable part of the deep levels of mental activity. An analysis of childhood neuroses, with which educators come across from time to time, reflections on drives, principles of regulation of vital psychic activity, memory errors are of considerable interest for the development of this topic in the future.
What is the unconscious? To understand this, you can remember people who believe in magic, all sorts of mystical rites to achieve the desired result. Psychoanalysts consider all this to be a manifestation of the unconscious. This issue is even better covered in the works written by Freud Z.
"Psychopathology of everyday life" contains a description of such issues as:
It is reservations that are given a significant place in the book, since they are an important aspect of the theory of psychoanalysis, which Freud promoted.
"Psychopathology of everyday life" deserves a close study by people interested in psychology.
As a psychoanalyst and a person with a lot of experienceworking with people who have problems in this area, he tried to make the book understandable to readers, even not related to psychiatry, and the new concept contributed to the fact that Freud had students. As a result, there was a club with an interesting name "Psychological Society on Wednesdays", which lasted more than six years. Subsequently, some members of the club became quite famous figures: A. Adler, P. Federn, K. Jung, E. Jones, and of course Sigmund Freud himself did not lose popularity.
"Psychopathology of everyday life," which was very controversial in its time, came out just at the peak of the popularity of society and played an important role in the formation of the principles of psychoanalysis.
Nowadays, many people are fond of researching Freud and his "Psychopathology of everyday life."
Someone says that a small book in 200pages can completely capture. Some have never thought about why it is not possible to recall a word or a name, although it seems that the word spins on the tongue. The book gave an opportunity to look at this problem from the point of view of psychiatry. Easy to read, understandable terminology.
The book is written in simple human language. It's interesting to read about the life stories that really happened to Freud or his friends. After each example, a complete analysis is given. The author has an amazing memory.
Many people like that the book consists of real,life examples. So it will be interesting not only to psychiatrists and doctors, but also to ordinary people. The author shows the influence of the unconscious in everyday life. After all, all sorts of reservations and the forgetting of well-known names occur quite often. Freud points out to the reader that all this is not accidental.
Someone admits that he always believed thatFreud was a pseudo scholar and all his works are pure charlatanry. But changed his mind after reading "Psychopathology." The book is interesting, although you can not quickly read it - you need to comprehend.
In 1910, the society disintegrated because of internalconflicts. One of the first to leave Adler, whose views differed significantly from the views of the founding father of psychoanalysis. He believed that the main motivation for a person is a desire for power, while Freud saw it in sexual desire.
Later the conflict took place between Freud and hisprotégé of Carl Jung. The reason for the divergence in views was Jung's fascination with myths and spiritualism, as well as the negation of certain postulates of the mentor. In particular, he advanced the theory of the "collective unconscious" ".
In any case, "Psychopathology of everyday life" occupies an important place in the theory of psychoanalysis and the structural model of the human psyche.
In the early 30's, the scientist managed to move toEngland, which was not easy, given Germany's military situation. Sigmund Freud died in 1939. Suffering from a serious illness, he asked his daughter Anna about euthanasia.
Anna refused to fulfill her father's will, howeverwatching the torment of the parent, soon changed her mind. At the end of September, Freud's attending physician introduced him a lethal dose of morphine, as a result of which the brilliant psychiatrist of that time passed away.