A study of the problem of the will is devoted to the works of manyforeign and domestic psychologists. Among the latter, such researchers as SL Rubinshtein, DN Uznadze, VA Ivannikov worked on this issue.
To understand what a strong-willed structure isact, it is necessary to define the very concept of will. The will is the ability of a person to control his behavior, despite the external and internal difficulties that stand in opposition to his control. The fact is that all actions performed by a person can be divided into two broad categories: arbitrary and involuntary. The latter group includes those that occur without the participation of control on the part of consciousness: for example, instincts inherent in nature, unconditioned reflexes, or actions performed in a state of intense emotional arousal (affect). Arbitrary actions are those that a person performs, relying on his own decisions: they are dictated by his will and realized with the participation of consciousness.
The structure of the volitional act developeddomestic scientists SL Rubinstein, includes several stages. The initial stage is a direct motivation for the performance of an action, it includes the initial setting of the goal. The second stage is not present in every case. Its characteristic feature is the struggle of motives. A person subjectively evaluates possible losses, which may be fraught with different algorithms of action. The third stage is a turning point. This is the final decision. The last stage of SL Rubinstein is execution.
However, some researchers add to thisscheme is a few more intermediate stages. The structure of the volitional act will include overcoming difficulties in the process of achieving the goal, as well as positive reinforcement, after the goal has been achieved.
However, the structure of the volitional act in psychologyis not only an algorithm of actions that describes the implementation of a particular behavior. Given the presence of certain barriers to achieving the goal, the ability to control one's behavior depends to a large extent on the extent to which certain traits of character are developed in a person. They include self-control, determination, will power, perseverance and courage. Therefore, some researchers pay special attention to other components that have the structure of the volitional act. For example, the cognitive component has a great influence on human behavior in different situations.
A very interesting study demonstrating the strength of this effect was carried out by AV Zaporozhets. The subjects were given the task of lifting heavy weights. The entire sample was divided into three groups.
The first included those subjects who were supposed to simply perform the task, without any additional instructions or explanations.
Participants of the second group were told that by lifting heavy weights, they should set their own personal record.
And finally, the third group consisted of those who were given an unusual explanation of this task. They were told that by raising weights, they thus generate electrical energy to supply the city.
Thus, one more essentialan addition that has the structure of an act of volition in psychology. The example showed that for the implementation of an action, the meaning of this action is of decisive importance. In other words, the researcher discovered the cognitive component of volitional regulation.
The structure of the volitional act in psychology isapplied field of research. The results obtained by scientists can be applied in a variety of life spheres. This is the psychology of work, sport, training, family psychology. The results obtained by scientists can be used both by professionals in counseling and by those who are interested in questions of will and motivation.
An interesting conclusion was made by the domesticresearcher VA Ivannikov. In his works, the scientist shows: the motivation for action includes not only the original deficit motive. Will regulation is also carried out with the formation of an additional motivation, one that could not have existed initially, when the subject just decided to take this or that action.
In many respects, the revealing discovery was made by A.I. Lipkina. It is associated with the specifics of the learning process. In her studies, a special place was occupied by the structure of the volitional act in psychology. Briefly Lipkina's experience is as follows. Those students who had poor academic performance at school asked for some time to take patronage over even weaker students. Moving from one role to another, these students began to receive the best marks, demonstrate a greater desire to learn.
But in addition to positive character traits to the fieldWill studies also include negative will-power qualities. These include stubbornness, compliance and impulsiveness. Stubbornness has very little relation to the processes of volitional regulation of behavior. It is associated with an inadequate perception of reality. Impulsivity is behavior caused by emotions, which is always thoughtless and realized in a hurry. Flexibility is synonymous with conformality: a person who has this quality, easily changes his decision, yielding to the influence of someone else's opinion.