In the modern world, the problem of deviant behaviorit is especially acute. Economic inequality, massive globalization, free access to information, the development of democracy, as well as social phenomena often cause negative reactions in the teenage environment. Young people rebel against injustice, established or imposed moral principles. Often this protest develops into especially dangerous forms, which harm not only the young "revolutionary", but the entire society.
The boundaries of what was permitted were long delineatedhumanity in the process of its development. Deviant behavior, examples of which can be observed in all strata of society, is a deviation from the generally accepted norms, customs, customs and traditions. It is non-standard, does not justify the expectations of the surrounding world or a group of people. It is clear that there is no absolutely ideal society: often its members make exceptions to the rules, bypass the canons, do not fulfill the tasks set. But this reaction does not have an aggressive or destructive color, rather, it is filled with elements of cunning, laziness, greed and other personality traits of the individual. Such a person, if harming himself and other people, is insignificant, easily correctable.
It is quite another thing - deviant behavior.Examples from life indicate that it has the most negative impact not only on the mental and physical development of man, but also on its socialization. And what is most sad, other people may suffer from it. Deviant behavior has its own direction:
Behavioral abnormalities can be classifiedfor a number of factors: depending on the form of the violation (etiquette, morality, law); motivation (mercenary, aggressive, pessimistic); executor (individual, group of people, organization).
The damage can be conditionally divided into two large groups of violations. Each of them is fundamentally different, since there are at the core diametrically opposing incentive elements:
1.Mental disorder, that is, the presence of an adolescent congenital or acquired pathology. The problem of deviant behavior is most often observed in people suffering from schizophrenia, asthenia, imbecile, oligophrenia and other disorders of consciousness. This group can also include individuals with an accentuated character, when some deviations in behavior are still within the norm, but almost border on the pathology. Such individuals can also be given a certain diagnosis, but often they do not go through the necessary treatment, because they can live a full life without finding the features in their psyche.
2. Anti-social behavior.People who are prone to negative actions are mentally healthy. The revolt that they are carrying out has a lot of different reasons: from "simply nothing to do" and to trying to turn all the foundations of society upside down because of the injustice of the distribution of material wealth in it. If the offenses committed by these people do not do much harm to the world around them, correction of deviant behavior takes place through punishment in accordance with the norms of labor or administrative law. Police often assign correctional labor to violators or charge a fine; at the enterprise, in the institution or office, such individuals are threatened with reprimand, disciplinary punishment or dismissal. If the crime is qualified as a criminal offense, more severe penalties are imposed on the offender, for example, arrest or imprisonment on a particular line.
Whatever the starting points of deviant behavior, in any case it must be stopped, and to the person who committed the offense, to apply preventive, curative or punitive measures.
It should be discussed in detail, since thisfeature is most often observed in juveniles in the transition years. Accentuation, as already mentioned, is a minor deviation from the norm of behavior. In this case, the adolescents clearly expressed one character trait, most often negative, which becomes problematic in communicating with others. For example, he can openly harass teachers and parents, refuse to do homework, ignore the requests of adults for help, and so on. There can be several reasons for this: a complex school curriculum, the difficulties of a transitional age, the influence of puberty. If we add personal troubles or stresses due to problems in the family, then we get the most real deviant, ready to take revenge on everyone.
It happens that a child's protest is not in theactive, but in a passive form. This behavioral reaction is called depression, and her minors are carefully concealed from adults. It can develop because of alleged physical defects that children attribute to themselves at puberty. Also, a teenager may have a so-called locus of control when he unjustifiably assumes responsibility for important or tragic events. This is also deviant behavior. Examples of names can be the following: a sense of guilt after the loss of a loved one, the death of a pet or a serious illness of a best friend.
In part, we have already named them. Sociologists distinguish three main sources, due to which the public behavior of a teenager goes beyond the bounds of decency:
The characteristic of deviant behavior is markeda complete lack of strong qualities in adolescents or staying in a "dormant" state. Instead of self-education, they choose an easier, but dangerous road that gives them a deceptive forgetfulness in the form of alcoholic or narcotic intoxication or imaginary self-assertion manifested in the form of violence.
Types of behavior that goes against the normalway of life, singled out and American sociologist Robert King Merton, known for his research problems. Its typology is based on the concepts of deviation as a gap between respected moral values and methods of achieving them:
Types of behavior according to Merton show us thatnot always the deviation is negative. After all, in the actions of a revolutionary there is nothing wrong, he simply tries to create better conditions for life. As for the great scientist, he is considered, on the contrary, a respected and esteemed person with small oddities or eccentricities.
These two forms of deviant behavior amongteenagers are more common than others. Alcoholism - the excessive use of alcohol by minors, which threatens their physical and mental health, causes pathological addiction, dependence. There are many reasons: genetic predisposition, congenital syndrome, individual personality traits, unfavorable surroundings, curiosity. Deviant behavior, examples of which are shown by schoolchildren who drink alcohol, is a consequence of a low level of development, lack of demand in the team, insecurity. To catch a child from a dangerous company and promptly save him from the negative influence of alcohol, it is necessary to find the victim an exciting lesson, as well as normal friends who will show an example of self-assertion through other means. The society also came up with legal measures to prevent the soldering of minors: a ban on the sale of alcoholic persons under the age of 18, a fine for parents for the appearance of their son or daughter in a state of intoxication. In addition, accustoming children to alcohol is considered a crime, which is punishable by articles of administrative and criminal law.
Addiction is another deviation from the norm. It implies the systematic use of substances that intoxicate the mind, causing profound and irreversible violations of mental and physical functions. The teenager becomes dependent on tablets, injections and powders due to neglect on the part of the community. Often with the help of drugs, minors express themselves or quench their curiosity. The addiction to them often encourages the teenager to take the criminal path in order to illegally obtain money for the purchase of a potion. Children caught in such bondage should be treated in special institutions. It is often impossible to refuse yourself from drugs.
Deviant behavior, examples of which showgirls who provide sexual services for a fee or without it are also not a rare phenomenon. The main reason is the desire to earn money, improve your financial situation yourself, if the parents are not able to provide all the moods dictated by fashion and media propaganda "beautiful life". If we add to this the low level of the adolescent's culture and his social debauchery, unhappy family and indifference of adults, the path to the panel becomes a kind of salvation for the child, an opportunity to escape from the difficulties and vicissitudes of fate. To reduce the level of prostitution among minors to a minimum, it is recommended to develop special programs for sex education, equalize social inequality, and increase the culture of the population.
As far as homosexuality is concerned, it iscases is a congenital predisposition. Finding that he is not like everyone else, a teenager falls into depression, begins to take in large quantities drugs and alcoholic beverages, suffers from neuroses and mental disorders. Such a minor needs qualified assistance from a specialist. If, however, he was involved in homosexuality through deception or coercion, then the guilty persons face imprisonment. By the way, sexual perversion is also deviant behavior. Examples from life show that adolescents are beginning to be interested in sadomasochism, group intimacy and other unnatural things.
Intention to take life or try it yourselfway to intimidate others - also features deviant behavior. The most dangerous age for young people is 16-19 years old: at this time, disappointment usually occurs in life because of a failed first love, inability to find a job or to continue education. Social status, conflict with society and stress are also powerful impulses to suicide. For people with suicidal tendencies, organize psychological help and helplines. Important and preventive work: the upbringing of the child a cheerful optimist, a demonstration by own example that life is beautiful, and the black stripes that are found practically in all, bring in it only a variety and a tart zest.
Offenses are a form of antisocial behavior,which is directed against citizens, the society, the way of life. Motivation in adolescents is different: ranging from ordinary mischief and ending with unmotivated aggression. To protect the growing generation from the influence of the criminal world, it is necessary to conduct lessons in the schools in the relevant topics. Parents, on their part, are obliged to explain that it is unacceptable to infringe the law - to do harm, or to hurt others - and deviant behavior is punishable in any case.
How to draw the adolescents out of that antisocialthe depths in which they are mired? Sociologists say: first, a special state program will help. Deviant behavior of children must be taken under control, this is the task of specialists. Also, favorable conditions should be created for the opening of rehabilitation centers of different directions, in which experienced specialists could save young people from harmful addictions, channel their energy into a productive and useful channel for society.
Secondly, invaluable assistance will be provided by hot lines operating in each city, national telephone hotlines and regional family counseling of psychologists.
Thirdly, the study of the adaptation environment of adolescents is notshould end no day. Deviant behavior of schoolchildren requires constant adjustment, which is obliged to take place in full interaction with the juvenile affairs inspectorate, doctors, police, representatives of guardianship authorities. If necessary, such children should be removed from the family if the reason for the deviation is precisely the influence of the parents.
For this purpose, the following measures were developed by specialists:
1. Conducting educational and development programs, courses in schools. Lectures are aimed at educating adolescents and fostering in them a sustainable aversion to drugs, alcohol, etc.
2. Propaganda of sport and healthy lifestyle. Prohibition of advertising of tobacco products and spirits.
3. Organization of interesting and informative leisure of young people. Working with children of deviant behavior requires the development of a scenario of pastime that would correspond to modern trends and fashion trends.
4. Care for the material security of children.
Friendly relations in the family - a guarantee thatyou will never run into the deviant behavior of your son or daughter. Care to ensure that in the future there are no problems, you need from the smallest years. Pay attention to your child: give him love and tenderness, do not swear in his presence, talk with the baby on different topics, share your feelings and emotions, listen to the heir and listen to his opinion. Become a faithful, faithful and reliable companion for the child.