The runway is the most important part of the airfield. This is a specially equipped earth surface, allowing you to take off and landing all kinds of aircraft.
Each runway (further runway)has a certain magnetic course (MK). The value of the MC is rounded off and divided by ten. For example, the magnetic course of the airport located in Tolmachevo is 72 °, so the runway in this case will be designated as VPP-07. However, this is only half the designation. Any runway simultaneously has two directions (in both directions). Consequently, the value of the opposite course will be 252 °. We get the full designation of the airport: VPP 07/25.
Some airports build several runways(mainly in large cities). Often they are located in parallel (for convenience and security at the same time). Then the letters L, C, R (the initial letters of the English words "left", "center", "right") are added to the notation numerically. For example, a fairly large airport Midway has three runways, the course of which is 133 ° / 313 °. Each runway at the airport has its name: either runway 13R / 31L, or runway 13L / 31R, or runway 13C / 31C.
Different airports take different planes. Therefore, the coverings of the bands also differ. They can be concrete, asphalt, gravel and soil.
The size of the runway is also different.They again depend on the level of the airport and the aircraft they receive. The smallest runway (duration 300 m, width 10 m) is used mainly for sports (small) aviation. However, there are solid airports, known to the world, the runway of which does not exceed these dimensions too much. By the way, they are listed in the top ten most dangerous airports (of all existing ones).
To this is Tenzing Airport.The airstrip huddles in the "gateway" of Everest. It passes along the mountain slope and has a duration of 475 m. There is only one attempt to land the pilot, because the surrounding terrain does not allow making a second round.
If the plane goes down suddenly, even the most experienced pilot can not stop it, and if the landing gear does not come off in time, the car will rush into the abyss, and the passengers will only hope for a miracle.
The largest runways (their duration is up to 5000 m and their width is up to 80 m) are built on the territory of aircraft plants and at international airports.
The longest runwaybelongs to the airbase Edwards. The place for its laying was the bottom of a dried-up lake in California. The length of the concrete cover stretches for 4572 m, the total length - 11917 m, and the width of the runway - 297 m.
In Russia, the longest runwaywas opened in May 2013 in Akhtubinsk (flight test center GLITS). The first take off from it was made by military bombers. The "Vzletka", having a length of 4 km and a width of 60 m, is planned to be used for take-off and landing of aircraft of all modifications and dimensions, and under any weather conditions. The cover of the runway itself is comparable to an eight-layer pie 1.8 m thick. This strip is a strategic object of the Air Force. In the near future, there will be tests of the newest aircraft.