Means of artistic expression: examples in the literature

Full, juicy, accurate, bright speech the mostwell conveys thoughts, feelings and assessments of the situation. Hence the success in all endeavors, because correctly constructed speech is a very accurate instrument of persuasion. It briefly describes what means of artistic expression a person needs to achieve the desired result from the outside world every day, and which ones - in order to replenish the arsenal of expressiveness of speech from literature.

means of artistic expression

Special expressiveness of the language

A verbal form that can attract attentionlistener or reader, make a vivid impression on him through novelty, originality, unusualness, with a departure from the usual and everyday - this is language expressiveness.

Here any tool works wellartistic expressiveness, in the literature, for example, metaphor, sound, hyperbole, personification and many others are known. It is necessary to master special techniques and methods in combinations of both sounds in words and phraseological units.

A huge role is played by vocabulary, phraseology, grammatical structure and phonetic features. Each means of artistic expression in literature works at all levels of language proficiency.

means of expressiveness in literature


Here the main thing is a sound recording, a special artisticA technique based on the creation of sound images through sound repetitions. You can even imitate the sounds of the real world - twitter, whistle, rain noise, etc., in order to evoke associations with the feelings and thoughts that you need to evoke from the listener or reader. This is the main goal that the means of artistic expressiveness must achieve. Examples of onomatopoeia contain most of the literary lyrics: Balmont is especially good here "Midnight at a time ...".

Virtually all poets of the Silver Ageused sound recording. Beautiful lines left Lermontov, Pushkin, Boratynsky. Symbolists, on the other hand, learned to evoke auditory, visual, even olfactory, tasteful, and tactile ideas to move the reader's imagination to experience certain feelings and emotions.

There are two main types, most fully revealing the audio-recorded means of artistic expressiveness. Examples from Blok and Andrei Bely, they used very often assonance - Repetition of identical vowels or similar in sound. The second type - alliteration, which is often found already in Pushkin and Tiutchev, is a repetition of consonant sounds - the same or similar.

what means of artistic expression

Vocabulary and Phraseology

The main means of artistic expressiveness in literature are trails that expressly depict a situation or an object using words in their figurative meaning. The main types of trails: comparison, epithet, personification, metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, periphrasis, litot and hyperbole, irony.

In addition to the tropes, there are simple and effective means of artistic expressiveness. Examples:

  • antonyms, synonyms, homonyms, paronyms;
  • phraseological units;
  • lexicon, stylistically colored, and vocabulary, which is used in a limited way.

The last paragraph includes both argo, and professional jargon, and even vocabulary, not accepted in a decent society. Antonyms sometimes are more effective than any epithets: How clean you are! - to the kid who has bathed in a pool. Synonyms enhance the color and accuracy of speech. Phraseological units are pleased with the fact that the addressee hears the familiar and comes to contact more quickly. These language phenomena are not a direct means of artistic expressiveness. Examples are rather nonspecial, suitable for a particular action or text, but capable of significantly adding brightness to the image and impact on the addressee. Beauty and liveliness of speech completely depend on what means of creating artistic expressiveness are used in it.

means of artistic expressiveness of speech

Epithet and comparison

Epithet - application or addition in translation fromGreek. Notes an essential feature that is important in this context, using a figurative definition, based on a hidden comparison. More often this adjective: black melancholy, gray-haired, etc., but can be an epithet of a noun, adverb, adverbial, pronoun and any other part of speech. It is possible to divide the used epithets into general language, folk-poetic and individual-author means of artistic expressiveness. Examples of all three types: grave silence, kind fellow, curly twilight. You can divide differently - into the picturesque and expressive: in the fog blue, nights insane. But any division, of course, is very conditional.

Comparison is the comparison of one phenomenon,concept or object with another. Not to be confused with the metaphor, where the names are interchangeable, in comparison both the subject, feature, action, etc. should be named. For example: glow, as a meteor. You can compare in different ways.

  • instrumental (youth nightingale flew by);
  • comparative degree of adverb or adjective (eyes greener seas);
  • conjunctions as if etc. (like a beast creaked the door);
  • the words alike etc. (your eyes look like two fogs);
  • comparative subordinate clauses (golden foliage spun in a pond, just a flock of butterflies flies on a star).

In popular poetry negative comparisons are often used: It's not a horse top ..., poets often build quite large by volumeworks, using this one means of artistic expressiveness. In the literature of the classics this can be seen, for example, in the poems of Koltsov, Tyutchev, Severyanin, prose Gogol, Prishvin and many others. Many people used it. This is probably the most popular means of artistic expressiveness. In the literature it is present everywhere. In addition, it serves both scientific, and journalistic, and colloquial text with the same zeal and success.

means of artistic expressiveness

Metaphor and personification

Another very widely used remedyartistic expressiveness in literature - a metaphor, which means in translation from Greek - transference. A word or sentence is used in a figurative sense. The basis here is the unconditional similarity of objects, phenomena, actions, etc. Unlike comparison, the metaphor is more compact. It leads only to what is compared with one or the other. Similarity can be based on form, color, volume, purpose, sensation, etc. (a kaleidoscope of phenomena, a spark of love, a sea of ​​letters, a treasure trove of poetry). The metaphors can be divided into conventional (general language) and artistic: skillful fingers and diamond thrill stars). There are already scientific metaphors: ozone hole, solar wind etc. The success of the speaker and the author of the text depends on what means of artistic expressiveness are used.

The type of the trail, similar to the metaphor, is an embodiment when the signs of a living being are transferred to objects, concepts or phenomena of nature: lay down sleepy fogs, autumn day paled and went out - the personification of the phenomena of nature, which happens especially often, the object world is less often represented - see Annensky's Violin and the Bow, Mayakovsky's Cloud in Pants, Mamin-Sibiryak with his "good-natured and cozy face at home"and much more.Even in everyday life, we no longer notice personifications: the device says the air heals, the economy has stirred up etc. Hardly there are ways to better this means of artistic expression, painting speech more colorful than the personification.

means of artistic expressiveness of painting

Metonymy and synecdoche

In Greek, metonymy meansrenaming, that is, the name is transferred from the subject to the subject, where the basis is contiguity. Very adorns the narrator using means of artistic expressiveness, especially such as metonymy. Connections on the principle of contiguity can be the following:

  • content and content: eat three plates;
  • author and work: scolded Homer;
  • action and its tool: did swords and fires;
  • object and material of the object: I ate gold;
  • place and characters: the city was noisy.

Metonymy complements the means of artisticexpressiveness of speech, with it clarity, accuracy, imagery, clarity and, like no epithet, laconism, is added. It is not for nothing that it is used by both literary and publicists, and it is also full of the spoken language of all layers of society.

In turn, a kind of metonymy -synecdoche, in Greek - correlation, is also based on replacing the meaning of one phenomenon with the meaning of another, but the principle is only one - the quantitative relationship between phenomena or objects. You can transfer this way:

  • less for more (to him the bird does not fly, the tiger does not go; drink glass);
  • part per integer (Beard, why are you keeping silent? Moscow did not approve the sanction).

what means of artistic expression used

Periphrasis, or periphrasis

Description, or descriptive sentence, in Greek - a turn, used instead of a word or a combination of words, is paraphrase. For example, Pushkin writes "Peter's creation," and everyone understands that he meant Petersburg. Perifraza allows us the following:

  • to identify the main features of the object that we are depicting;
  • avoid repetition (tautology);
  • Vividly assess what is being depicted;
  • give the text sublime pathos, pathos.

Peripherals are inadmissible only in business andofficial style, in the rest there are as many as you like. In colloquial speech, it most often adjoins with irony, merging these two means of artistic expressiveness together. The Russian language is enriched from the fusion of different paths.

Hyperbola and Litota

An imaginary expression with an exaggerated exaggeration of the sign or features of an object, action or phenomenon is a hyperbola (from Greek it is translated as an exaggeration). Litota - on the contrary, understatement.

Thought is given an unusual form, brightemotional coloring, convincing evaluation. Particularly well help create comic images. Used in journalism as the most important means of artistic expressiveness. In the literature without these paths, too, do not do: rare bird at Gogol's reach only to the middle of the Dnieper; tiny bugs in Krylov and similar much in almost every work of any author.

Irony and sarcasm

In Greek, this word meanspretense, which is quite consistent with the use of this trail. What means of artistic expressiveness are needed for ridicule? The statement should be the opposite of the direct meaning, when a completely positive assessment hides a mockery: clever mind - an appeal to Oslu in Krylov's fable is an example. "Unsinkability of the hero"- the irony used in the framework of journalism,where most often put quotes or brackets. The means of creating artistic expressiveness are not exhausted by it. As irony in the highest degree - wicked, sarcastic - sarcasm is often used: the contrast between the expressed and the implied, as well as the intentional exposure of the implied. Unmerciful, sharp exposure - his handwriting: Usually I argue about the taste of oysters and coconuts only with those who ate them (Zhvanetsky). The algorithm of sarcasm is a chain of such actions: a negative phenomenon generates anger and resentment, then comes the reaction - the last degree of emotional openness: Well-fed pigs are scarier than hungry wolves. However, you need to use sarcasm as much as possiblemore cautiously. And not often, if the author is not a professional satirist. The bearer of sarcasm often finds himself smarter than others. However, not one satirist did not get to get out of love. She and her appearance always depend on what means of artistic expressiveness are used in the evaluative text. Sarcasm is a killerly powerful weapon.

Non-special means of language vocabulary

Synonyms help to convey the finest emotional shades and expression. For example, you can use the word "rush" instead of "run" for greater expressive power. And not only for her:

  • clarification of the thought itself and the transmission of the smallest semantic nuances;
  • evaluation of the depicted and author's attitude;
  • intensive enhancement of expression;
  • deep disclosure of the image.

Also a good expressive means are the antonyms. They clarify the idea, playing on contrasts, more fully characterize this or that phenomenon: glossy wastepaper flood, and truly fiction - a stream. From antonyms there is also a method widely used by writers-the antithesis.

Many writers, and simply note-wags willingly play with words that coincide in sound and even in writing, but have different meanings: cool guy and boiling water, and steep bank; flour and flour; three in the diary and three carefully blur. And anecdote: To listen to the authorities? So, dismiss ... And they fired. They are homonymous, homographs and homophones.

Words that are similar in spelling and sound, but having absolutely different meanings, are also often used as puns and have sufficient expressive power with deft use. History - hysteria; master - millimeter etc.

It should be noted that such non-main means of artistic expressiveness, as synonyms, antonyms, paronyms and homonyms, are not used in official and business styles.

Phraseological units

Otherwise - idioms, that is phraseologically readyexpressions, too, add orator or a writer of eloquence. Mythological imagery, high or colloquial, with expressive evaluation - positive or negative (small fry and apple of the eye, soap the neck and sword of Damocles) - all this enhances and beautifies the visibilityimagery of the text. Salt phraseology - a special group - aphorisms. Deepest thoughts in the shortest possible execution. Easy to remember. They are often used, like other means of expressiveness, in an artistic text. Here you can include proverbs and sayings.

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