The dictionary of the Russian language is rich and diverse. But the common vocabulary is undoubtedly considered to be its most important part. It is the core, without which it is impossible to imagine language and conversation, includes common words denoting concepts that are used everywhere. They can be heard on the street, at work, at school, in the store, in other words, anywhere. Folk vocabulary is the basis of a literary national dictionary, a very important material for speaking in your native language. This is the foundation that helps to continue to enrich and improve vocabulary. Do not underestimate its importance. Virtually all units of folk vocabulary are used actively and constantly, they can be found in every speech style.
In Russian there are many words knownand accessible to everyone, which can be used in both conversation and writing. Examples include the following lexical units: "river", "soil", "grove", "roll", "walk", "eat", "winter", "catchy", "work", "read", " newspaper "," woman "," proposal "," person ", etc. There are also neutral words that can be found in scientific work and in ordinary conversation; they can be seen in official paper and in a friend's letter. There are a lot of such lexical units in the Russian language. Common words, examples of which you now know, are distributed throughout the country. They are also used in some other states where people speak Russian.
In addition to the stylistically neutral lexicalunits, among commonly used words there are those that can be pronounced by every person, but only sometimes. For this, an opportunity should be presented. For example, the words: "earth", "sprawl", "newspaper", "bearded", "garden" - so different from stylistically neutral lexical units, that they can be called emotional or even expressive. This is very felt when they are pronounced. Emotional coloring is transmitted with the help of all sorts of suffixes, which can be pejorative-magnifying or diminutive-caressing, and expressiveness is achieved by the unusual pictorial nature of words used in speech. Saying such lexical units, a person shows his good or bad attitude to the event or object. And it is not surprising that such words are very rarely used in scientific works and business papers. Emotional-expressive lexical units are not used in all types of speech. As a rule, they are actively used in ordinary conversations, and they can also be read in printed publications. It is impossible to imagine how people would have said, if not common ubiquitous words. The terms are quite another, they are related to professional vocabulary. Do not confuse them with common words. This is a gross mistake.
But from all the above, it does not follow thatcommon words are a closed vocabulary, to which there is no influence. Do not think so. On the contrary, to this vocabulary can be added terms (special or dialect), the use of which was previously curtailed. For example, the words: "motley", "tyrant", "boring", "burning", "loser", "regular" - were not as common in the early 19th century as they are now: their scope of use was limited to dialect or special sphere. And now these lexical units are common. It is interesting, is not it? Common words in Russian are of great interest to many researchers. In addition, they are often sought to learn about foreigners going to Russia.
Also some common lexicalunits with time can disappear from conversational speech, narrow the scope of its application. For example, the words "squeamish" (dawn) and "zobat" (eat) for today are used only in several Russian dialects. Many of them do not remember. It happens that the lexical unit ceases to be generally used and becomes a professional jargon. Most people gradually forget this word, which is a bit sad. Common words are lexical units, which can be completely erased from the memory of people. Unfortunately it's true.
People's vocabulary has the opposite - words of limited use. They can be heard from among people of a certain profession or living in the same territory.
It is also necessary to consider words that aredialectal. They are used in their speech by people who inhabit a certain geographical area. Dialectical lexical units are most often used in simple conversations. And this is quite understandable. After all, the dialect refers primarily to the oral speech of people living in villages. It will be incomprehensible to an outsider. However, the villagers, of course, know and common words. It would be foolish to think that they can not use them in their speech.
What is the difference between dialectal andcommon words? The first are characterized by a narrower field of use, in addition, they are characterized by some semantic-lexical, grammatical, and also phonetic features. Given their characteristic features, several types of dialectisms can be distinguished. Which ones?
Lexical units, which can usually beto hear, being in a society of people of a certain kind of activity, refer to special and professional words. They are used in some areas of technology and science. These two terms should be distinguished in order to understand which word is officially accepted and constantly pronounced (special), and which is expressively reinterpreted, reinterpreted after it was borrowed from a common vocabulary (professional). The latter are common in the vocabulary of people of many kinds of activity. Thus, common words sometimes give rise to professionalism.
Special vocabulary, as a rule, completely"Covers" a certain special sphere of technology or science: all important ideas and concepts are denoted by strictly established terms. Professionalism is a bit different from them. They are rarely presented as a system, since they are taken from oral conversations of people belonging to a particular profession. Professionalism can be called quite emotional and vivid words. They sound very expressive. Every person needs to know what common words, dialectal and professional words are.