Nikita Khrushchev entered the history of the USSR andRussia as the most ambiguous ruler that influenced the development of new directions in the foreign and domestic policy of the USSR and implemented several reforms during the decade of its rule.
Internal policy of Khrushchev
The death of Stalin in 1953. led to a behind-the-scenes struggle for a place on the "throne," but Khrushchev got the post of first secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. At the XXth Congress (1956), he made a report that received a worldwide response. The main theme was the exposure of Stalin's cult of personality with the listing of a number of crimes of the 30s-50s. and a harsh criticism of his repressions. The beginning of de-Stalinization and democratization has been initiated.
De-Stalinization had, however, neitherconsistency, or integrity. According to Khrushchev's ideas, it consisted in condemning the cult of Stalin and establishing party control over punitive organs. There was a restoration of law and order, legality and constitutional rights of citizens.
Reforms of Khrushchev found their continuation - wasthe reorganization of the ruling party: democratization, changes in the conditions of admission to it, expansion of the rights of local organizations and union republics. In 1957, the people deported by Stalin were restored. There are new bodies of social self-government, etc.
Reform of management
An attempt to switch to economic methodsmanagement has led to a more complex management structure, an increase in the number of officials. In 1962, the most unsuccessful of the reforms was undertaken: the specialization of party organizations (industrial and rural). The country was divided into 105 economic regions.
Khrushchev's reforms began with agriculture. Since 1953 the economic status of the collective farms has been strengthened, the size of the agricultural tax has been reduced. Farms were given loans, new equipment was delivered. In the mid-fifties, their general enlargement began - the transformation into state farms. Then were created and Sovnarkhoz.
The peasants were issued passports, they were given a pension.
The cornish epic also became part of the image of Khrushchev - following the example of the United States, this culture began to be planted everywhere, even where it basically can not grow (right up to the Far North!).
In 1954, a campaign was launched to develop virginlands. A sharp jump followed with unprecedented harvests, for the first time in the postwar years, the purchase price of grain increased. But erosion destroyed the virgin soil. Non-chernozem center has come to a complete decline.
Khrushchev's military reforms
After coming to power, he took a direction onthe rise of defense and heavy industry. SA and the fleet received nuclear missiles. According to the correlation of military power, the USSR achieves parity with the United States. The direction of the development of politics towards the peaceful coexistence of states of different social structures is considered.
After the adoption of the law on the payment of pensions to peasantsit was decided to cancel the payment of tuition in the senior classes, eight-year training becomes mandatory. The norms of working time are established, in particular - a 6-hour working day for teenagers of 16 years.
The housing fund is actively expanding. Housing construction is based on industrial methods. The country's housing stock increases by 40% over the seven-year period! True, the construction was conducted in a style that went down in history by the name "Khrushchey", but the housing crisis disappeared.
School reform led to a single eight-year school. Those wishing to receive a full secondary education needed to continue their education in a secondary polytechnic school (vocational school, evening or correspondence school).
Foreign policy of Khrushchev
External relations in those days developed in the style of the traditional for the Bolsheviks policy. The main direction of foreign policy was the strengthening of security systems across all borders.
Contacts with foreigncountries, in the press there are also positive responses about other countries. Trade relations are expanding. This entails mutual benefit, because the countries of the West receive a vast market for their products.
Significantly affected the world situation launchthe first artificial earth satellite in 1957, a new, cosmic era begins. Khrushchev, a supporter of the Queen, supports his idea of overtaking Americans in the exploration of outer space.
This changed the alignment of priorities, now the West was under the sights of Soviet intercontinental missiles.
In 1961 was put "Berlin ultimatum", in which Khrushchev demanded the erection of a wall between western and eastern Berlin. Huge resonance of the world community. After the "Berlin crisis" another one, the so-called. "Caribbean", or "missile crisis". Kennedy tried to seize Cuba, to which the USSR rendered economic and now also military assistance, sending there military and technical advisers, various types of weapons. Including rockets, which threatened the US with a blow. Kennedy demanded to prevent the unloading of missiles in Cuba, and Khrushchev took these demands.
The killing of Kennedy led to the needto establish contact with President Johnson. But accusations of voluntarism were brought against Khrushchev, and he was sent into retirement. He was also killed by an attempt to cut down benefits and privileges for civil servants. Under Khrushchev, an authoritarian system was formed in the USSR, however, the foundations of the command and administrative system were strengthened.</ p>