In the history of the Armed Forces of our country, a prominentthe place is occupied by the Red Banner Panfilov Division, whose composition was made up of representatives of almost thirty nationalities that inhabited the USSR. In their human memory, their role in defending Moscow from the fascist hordes that were rushing towards it is indelible. But the people of the older generation also remember the propaganda boom that was raised around the "heroic deed of the 28 panfilovites," which later turned out to be nothing but an idle fiction of the journalist.
Mastering military science Ivan Vasilyevich Panfilovbegan in the years of the imperialist war - in 1915 on the South-Western Front. Participating in combat operations as part of the 638th Olpinsky regiment, he rose to the rank of sergeant major, which corresponds to the senior sergeant of the modern army. When in February 1917 the autocracy was overthrown and the processes aimed at democratizing the society began in the country, Panfilov joined the committee of his regiment.
In the first days of the Civil War, he becameRed Army man. It should be noted that Ivan Vasilievich was waiting for untold luck - the infantry regiment, in which he was enrolled, became part of the Chapayev division, and thus Panfilov, commanding first a platoon and then a company, had the opportunity to gain combat experience under the command of one of the most famous and legendary military leaders in the history of the Red Army. This experience was useful to him in future battles.
In the period from 1918 to 1920 he happenedparticipate in the battles with the units of the Czechoslovak Corps, the White Poles, as well as the armies of Kolchak, Denikin and Ataman Dutov. Panfilov ended the civil war in Ukraine, heading the units, whose task was to fight numerous gangs formed mainly from local nationalists. In addition, in those years, Ivan Vasilievich was instructed to command one of the platoons of a battalion of border guards.
In 1921, the command sent IvanVasilyevich to study at the Kiev School of the Higher Commander of the Red Army, which he graduated with honors two years later. By that time, Soviet power had already been established in the European part of the country, but fierce fighting continued in the Central Asian republics, and the young graduate was sent to the Turkestan Front to fight the Basmachi.
It was in Central Asia that I received furtherdevelopment of the career of the future legendary commander. For ten years (1927-1937) he led the regimental school of the 4th Turkestan Rifle Regiment, commanded a rifle battalion, a mountain rifle regiment, and in 1937 became the chief of staff of the Central Asian Military District. The next important step is to appoint him in 1939 as the military commissioner of Kyrgyzstan. In the last prewar year, Ivan Vasilyevich for the merits in strengthening the defense capacity of the country is awarded the rank of Major-General.
In July 1941, on the orders of the military commissarKyrgyzstan Major General IV Panfilov began to be completed 316th Infantry Division. It soon became one of the two, which in the history of the Red Army was given the name of their commanders. The first was Chapaevskaya, and the second was Panfilov's division. She was destined to go down in history as a model of the mass heroism of soldiers and commanders.
Formed in July 1941 Panfilovskayaa division whose national composition included almost all representatives of the Central Asian republics, joined the Nazis in the Novgorod region a month later, and in October it was redeployed to Volokolamsk. There, as a result of persistent battles, it was able not only to defend its positions, but also heroically counterattacked completely to destroy four German divisions, among which were two infantry, tank and motorized. Panfilovtsy during this period destroyed about 9 thousand soldiers and officers of the enemy, and also killed about 80 tanks.
Although the general situation at the front forced the division,headed by I. V. Panfilov, to leave the defensive positions and, in accordance with the general tactical plan of the command to withdraw, she was one of the first on the front to be awarded the honorable title of Guards.
Until now, a very curiousa document that, when you read it, involuntarily overflows with pride for those people who once blocked the way for the fascists. This is the report of the commander of the 4th German Tank Brigade. In it, he calls the Panfilovites a "wild division" and reports that it is absolutely impossible to fight with these people: they are real fanatics and are not at all afraid of death. Of course, the German general was mistaken: they feared death, but the performance of duty was placed above life.
In November of the same year, events took place thatin the presentation of their means of Soviet propaganda they made the division and its commander known to the whole country. This is a famous battle, in which the soldiers managed to destroy, in a short time, 18 enemy tanks near the Dubosekovo train, despite the fact that there were only 28 tanks.
In those days the Panfilov division fought fiercely withan opponent who was trying to surround her and destroy the headquarters. According to the version widely propagated by Soviet propaganda, on Nov. 16 the 4th company, commanded by the political instructor VG Klochkov, carrying out the defense of the Dubosekovo crossing, located 8 kilometers from Volokolamsk, and repulsing the attack of fifty enemy tanks, performed an unprecedented feat. They managed in a battle lasting four hours, to destroy 18 enemy fighting vehicles, and the rest to force to turn back.
All of them, according to the same version, were killed by deaththe brave. The political instructor Klochkov himself, dying, supposedly uttered a phrase that later became a propaganda cliche: "Russia is great, but nowhere to retreat: Moscow is behind!" Having fulfilled its duty, the Panfilov division stopped further advance of the enemy on the Volokolamsk direction. In the same days, having fallen under the heavy mortar fire of the enemy, the division commander himself, Lieutenant-General Ivan V. Panfilov, perished.
Unfortunately, this story at its detailedconsideration caused some doubts among the researchers. After the war - in 1948 - a prosecutor's investigation of the incident was conducted. As a result, the chief military prosecutor of the Armed Forces of the USSR, Lieutenant-General Afanasyev, was forced to state that the feat attributed to the 28 heroes of the Panfilovites is a fiction.
The impetus for the beginning of the investigation was verycurious circumstances. The fact is that a year earlier, in Kharkov, I managed to arrest the traitor to the Motherland and the former accomplice of the fascists IE Dobrobabin. During a search among other things, he found a popular at that time and published in a mass edition book on the feat of 28 Panfilovites.
Turning over her pages, the investigator came acrossto the information that made him astonished: it turned out that his prisoner appeared in it as one of the main participants in the events. Moreover, the book said that he died heroically and was posthumously awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. It is quite understandable that after this "discovery" it was necessary to verify the other facts set forth by the authors of the popular publication.
Documents were immediately requested,which made it possible to draw an objective picture of the hostilities in which the Panfilov division then participated. The list of the dead at the end of November 1941, reports of all collisions with the enemy, reports of unit commanders and even intercepted German radiograms immediately fell on the table of the investigator of the military prosecutor's office of the Kharkov region.
As a result, as was said above, the consequence ofconvincingly proved that the facts set forth in the book are fiction and there is a deliberate falsification of the events that have occurred. In May 1948, Lieutenant-General Afanasyev reported these findings personally to the USSR Prosecutor General G. N. Sofonov, and the latter, in turn, compiled a document directed to AA Zhdanov.
The initiator of historical falsification, as it wasestablished by the investigation, was the editor of the newspaper "Red Star" Ortenberg. On his instructions in the next issue was published an article written by the reporter of the newspaper Krivitsky, in which a partially unverified and partly deliberately fictitious material was presented. As a result, a myth was born about a small handful of heroes who managed to stop the tank armada of the enemy.
During the interrogation, Krivitsky, who had occupiedtime, one of the leading posts in the editorial staff of the newspaper "Red Banner", admitted that the famous dying phrase of political instructor Klochkov "Great Russia, but nowhere to retreat ..." was invented by himself, as, indeed, everything else written in the book. But even without his confession the lie was evident: from whom could he hear those words, after all, according to his version, all the participants of the battle died and no witnesses left?
The author of falsification thanks to the inventedhe managed to create a name for himself in literary circles, to write and publish several books, to become an author or at least a co-author of several poems and poems about the unparalleled heroism of 28 Panfilovites. And among other things, this story gave a tangible impetus to his further career growth.
What really happened?This question is answered by further studies of the historians of the Patriotic War. It can be seen from them that during this period the Panfilov division really fought in this area battles with several German corps. Moreover, they took a particularly fierce character in the Dubosekovo exit area.
However, neither in our, nor even in the enemy's militaryreports do not mention the battle described in the sensational newspaper article, thanks to which the Panfilov division became the center of attention. The list of those killed in those days also does not correspond to the data given by Krivitsky. Many were killed: heavy fighting was going on, but they were completely different people.
The former commander of the infantry regiment,who was deployed in the area at the time of the events described, showed that the Dubosekovo crossing was defended by a company that was completely destroyed during the fighting, but they, he said, were 100 people, not 28. The Panfilov division suffered heavy losses in those days, and this company replenished their number. However, only 9 tanks were killed, of which 3 were burned in place, and the rest turned back and left the battlefield. In addition, he stressed the absurdity of the assumption that 28 lightly armed men could successfully resist 50 enemy tanks on a flat terrain.
This myth in the postwar years has received widespread through Soviet propaganda. The materials of the prosecutor's check of 1948 were classified, and the attempt made by the Novy Mir correspondent E.V. Cardina in 1966 to reveal the inconsistency of the official version in his article, was sharply rebuked by Leonid Brezhnev. The General Secretary of the CPSU called the published materials libel on the party and the heroic history of our Motherland.
Only in the years of perestroika, when finally there werethe materials of the investigation of 1948 were declassified, it was possible, without detracting from the glory that Panfilov's division deservedly deserved, to bring to the attention of the general public the fact of the distortion of the events of the past war.
However, despite such an unfortunate incident,the culprits of which are not too zealous Soviet propagandists, it is necessary to recognize the great contribution of the Panfilovites in the cause of the victory over the fascists. In November of the same year, their division was officially called Panfilovskaya. Only in Volokolamsk direction in the period from November 16 to November 21, in conjunction with other units and formations of the Soviet Army, it halted the advance of two German corps and one tank division.
The further combat route of Panfilov's division wasdifficult, full of losses, but, as before, fanned by glory. In the first months of 1942, she, along with other Soviet units, participated in battles against the SS division "The Dead Head". The fighting took place with unusual bitterness of both sides and caused numerous losses both in the ranks of the Panfilovites and their opponents.
With honor having won through until 1945, that isalmost before the end of the Second World War, Panfilov's division was surrounded by an attack on the Latvian city of Saldus. As a result, almost all of her personnel were killed, and only 300 people were able to break through the enemy ring. In the future, the surviving members of the Panfilov division were assigned to other units and already ended the war in their composition.
In the post-war years, the division, whichits high fighting qualities and partly due to the propaganda excitement around it, the whole country knew, was completely restored. The place of its deployment was the territory of Estonia. However, in 1967 the leadership of the Kirghiz SSR appealed to the government of the country with a request that the personnel of the Panfilov division with all weapons and equipment be transferred to them in the republic. This appeal was caused by considerations of national security and therefore met with support in Moscow.
Having joined the Turkestan Military District,The Panfilov division, which by that time was largely enriched by draftees from the Central Asian republics, was partially deployed in the Kirghiz SSR and partly in the Kazakh SSR. For a state that included different republics, this was quite normal. But in the years following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the history of the Panfilov division has undergone several dramatic moments.
Suffice it to say that while inNorthern Group of Forces of the Armed Forces of Kirghizia, it was completely abolished in 2003 and completely disbanded for all. It is difficult to say who and by what political or other interests took such a decision. However, the glorious division ceased to exist.
Only eight years later, whenthe 70th anniversary of its founding, it was again formed and got its former name. Today, the city of Tokmok is located in the vicinity of Bishkek. Panfilov's division, whose national composition today is basically a conglomeration of nationalities inhabiting Kyrgyzstan, is under the command of a native of those places - Colonel Nurlan Isabekovich Kiresheyev.