Now it is difficult for a person to imagine that sometimethe life of society was organized without the state and its various political institutions. It is in them that the whole power of power is concentrated. However, history shows that at the beginning of civilization, the state was preceded by society as a community of people. So, the problems of a primitive horde of hunters were decided by a single leader, that is, a leader. Along with the advent of the tribes, a council of elders arose, on which various disputes were resolved, the main cases were discussed. To regulate human relations in this period, there were enough existing customs, traditions and norms.
That is, the state did not appear immediately. It was the result of a gradual historical development. The ancient philosophers of the origin of the state saw in the complication of the forms of human community. They considered this process quite natural. Aristotle, for example, proposed the following hypothesis, explaining the reasons for the emergence of the state. At first people united in families. When they were going to several, it turned out a village. And only at the last stage of this process does the state appear as a form of human community, in which citizens are already subject to the power of the law. At the same time, a political device appears.
In the Middle Ages, the origin and essencestates began to be viewed from a religious point of view. The population was told that this is the institution of power on earth, established by God himself. Even modern Catholicism agrees with the views of Thomas Aquinas on the causes of the emergence of the state. He reminded people that the power is connected with the laws of the divine and called upon her to obey.
With theocratic theories are closely relatedethical. They view the state as the embodiment of a law common to all, a moral idea. Hegel believed that it is the highest stage on which unity is restored, destroyed earlier by the struggle between the individual and groups.
In modern times, T. Hobbes, J.-J. Rousseau put forward a treaty theory, according to which people who lived without a state decided to create it consciously (they concluded a treaty), so that all have the same rights and freedoms.
Supporters of the theory of conquest (F. Oppenheimer, L. Gumplovich) believe that they very realistically explain this phenomenon. In their opinion, states and classes arise as a result of the conquest of tribes by each other.
Otherwise, this process is considered Marxisttheory. Its representatives see the reasons for the emergence of the state in the need of an economically strong class to have its own political organization in order to suppress class opponents. That is, it appeared at the level of development of the forces of production, when the division of labor occurred, private property arose, and consequently inequality of property and division of society into opposite groups.
There are also attempts to explain the reasonsemergence of the state of psychological factor. Supporters of this theory - J. Burdo, M. Kovalevsky. According to her, the leaders influenced the crowd in need of leadership, hypnosis, charisma and thus created the state.
In modern political science reigns syntheticpoint of view on the causes and forms of the emergence of the state. It takes into account several factors, in a complex influencing this process. This is religious, and socio-economic, and moral, and psychological, and military. However, the main reason is still seen in the evolution of economic activity of people. After the productivity of labor has increased, an excess product has appeared, the society has become delaminated, depending on the amount of property. To consolidate their position and protect material values, people needed special rules, norms, structures. So in politics, and appeared the first institutions of management, which at that stage still relied not only and not so much on the law as on the strength of weapons.