"Counterrevolution" is a historical term,which determines the process of combating the revolution and the social system it has created. In order to understand the meaning of this definition, it is necessary to consider it from the point of view of the historical context.
There are many different interpretationsdefinition of "counterrevolution". According to Ushakov's well-known Russian dictionary, counterrevolution is a social and political movement that aims to destroy the consequences of the revolution and restore the pre-revolutionary system in society.
The dictionary of the Russian language Ozhegov represents the definition of "counterrevolution" as an active activity of the rivals of the revolution in the struggle for the establishment of public order.
The etymologically described term is borrowed from the French language, in which it looks like a contre-revolution.
The first full-fledged counter-revolutionaryhistorical processes that have a feudal character, originated in Europe as a reaction to the revolutionary overthrow of the monarchs. Examples of such events are the English restoration of the Stuart Dynasty (1660-1688 gg.), And the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty in France (1814-1830 gg.). The success of these counterrevolutions is due to the ill-considered actions of the revolutionary bourgeoisie. Moreover, these forces went over to the side of counter-revolutionary representatives, who offered them conditions for profitable cooperation.
One of the most famous examples of counterrevolution -This is the struggle of white generals against the red power in the era of the Civil War in Russia in the first half of the 20th century. The revolutionary overthrow of the Russian government and the abolition of the institution of the monarchy are the factors under whose actions the active counter-revolutionary White Guard movement was formed. However, as in the case of the European counter-revolutionaries, too, the attempt to overthrow the revolutionary order failed.
Counterrevolution as a historical process can beclassify by internal and external orientation. The internal is a process carried out within the framework of a certain state, using various forms and methods: from revolts and conspiracies to fomenting civil wars.
Counter-revolution of external originis characterized by an international orientation. This means that pressure on the revolutionary regime occurs under the influence of external factors. Historically, international counter-revolutionary organizations were created. For example, the "Sacred Union" was created as an instrument of reaction to the revolutionary policy of France of the XIX century.