Science - one of the most important areas of humanactivity at the present stage of development of the world civilization. To date, there are hundreds of different disciplines: technical, social, humanitarian, natural sciences. What are they studying? How did natural science develop in the historical aspect?
What is natural science? When it originated and from what directions does it consist?
Natural science is a discipline that studiesnatural phenomena and phenomena that are external to the subject of research (man). The term "natural science" in Russian comes from the word "nature", which is synonymous with the word "nature".
The foundation of natural science can be consideredmathematics, as well as philosophy. Of these, by and large, all modern natural sciences came out. At first the naturalists tried to answer all questions concerning nature and its various manifestations. Then, as the subject of research became more complex, natural science began to split into separate disciplines, which eventually became more isolated.
In the context of modern times, natural science is a complex of scientific disciplines about nature, taken in their close relationship.
The development of the natural sciences took place gradually. However, human interest in the phenomena of nature manifested itself in antiquity.
Natural philosophy (in fact, science) is activedeveloped in ancient Greece. Ancient thinkers, with the help of primitive methods of research and, sometimes, intuition, were able to make a number of scientific discoveries and important assumptions. Even then the natural philosophers were sure that the Earth revolves around the Sun, could explain the solar and lunar eclipses, quite accurately measured the parameters of our planet.
In the Middle Ages, the development of natural sciencemarkedly slowed down and was heavily dependent on the church. Many scientists at this time were persecuted for the so-called dissidence. All scientific research and research, in fact, boiled down to the interpretation and justification of the scriptures. Nevertheless, during the Middle Ages, logic and theory developed substantially. It should also be noted that at this time the center of natural philosophy (direct study of natural phenomena) geographically shifted towards the Arab-Muslim region.
In Europe, the rapid development of natural sciencebegins (renewed) only in the XVII-XVIII centuries. This is the time of large-scale accumulation of actual knowledge and empirical material (the results of "field" observations and experiments). The natural sciences of the 18th century are also based in their studies on the results of numerous geographic expeditions, voyages, studies of newly discovered lands. In the XIX century, logic and theoretical thinking again came first. At this time, scientists are actively processing all the collected facts, putting forward various theories, formulating regularities.
To the most outstanding naturalists in historyworld science should include Thales, Eratosthenes, Pythagoras, Claudius Ptolemy, Archimedes, Isaac Newton, Galileo Galilei, René Descartes, Blaise Pascal, Nikola Tesla, Mikhail Lomonosov and many other famous scientists.
Basic natural sciences include: mathematics (which is also often called the "queen of sciences"), chemistry, physics, biology. The problem of the classification of natural science has been around for a long time, and it bothers the minds of more than a dozen scientists and theorists.
Friedrich handled this dilemma bestEngels is a German philosopher and scientist who is better known as a close friend of Karl Marx and the co-author of his famous work called "Capital". He was able to identify two main principles (approach) of the typology of scientific disciplines: this is an objective approach, as well as the principle of development.
The most detailed classification of the sciences was proposed by the Soviet methodologist Bonifati Kedrov. She has not lost its relevance in our days.
The whole complex of scientific disciplines can be divided into three large groups:
Nature is exploring the latter. The full list of natural sciences is presented below:
As for mathematics, scientists have no singleopinions, to which group of scientific disciplines it should be attributed. Some consider it a natural science, others - accurate. Some methodologists attribute mathematics to a separate class of so-called formal (or abstract) sciences.
Chemistry is a vast area of natural science,the main object of study of which is the substance, its properties and structure. This science examines natural bodies and objects at the atomic-molecular level. She also studies the chemical bonds and reactions that occur during the interaction of various structural particles of a substance.
For the first time the theory that all natural bodiesconsist of smaller (not visible to man) elements, advanced by the ancient Greek philosopher Democritus. He suggested that each substance includes smaller particles, just as words consist of different letters.
Modern chemistry is a complex science that includes several dozen disciplines. These are inorganic and organic chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, even cosmochemistry.
Physics is one of the oldest sciences on Earth. The laws discovered by her are the basis, the foundation for the entire system of disciplines of natural science.
For the first time the term "physics" was used by Aristotle. In those days, she was almost identical philosophy. In independent science, physics began to turn only in the XVI century.
Today, under the physics understand the science that studiesmatter, its structure and movement, as well as the general laws of nature. In its structure, there are several main sections. These are classical mechanics, thermodynamics, quantum physics, the theory of relativity, and some others.
The distinction between natural and humanitarianthe science of the fat line passed through the "body" of the once unified geographical science, dividing its individual disciplines. Thus, physical geography (as opposed to economic and social) was in the bosom of natural science.
This science studies the geographic shell of the Earth inwhole, as well as individual natural components and systems included in its composition. Modern physical geography consists of a number of branch sciences. Among them:
Humanitarian, natural sciences - are they as far from each other as it may seem?
Of course, these disciplines differ in objectresearch. The natural sciences study nature, the humanities concentrate their attention on man and society. Humanitarian disciplines cannot compete with natural ones in accuracy; they are not able to mathematically prove their theories or confirm hypotheses.
On the other hand, these sciences are closely related,intertwined with each other. Especially in the conditions of the XXI century. So, mathematics has long been embedded in literature and music, physics and chemistry - in art, psychology - in social geography and economics, and so on. In addition, it has long become apparent that many important discoveries are being made just at the junction of several scientific disciplines, which, at first glance, have absolutely nothing in common.
Natural science is the direction of science,studying natural phenomena, processes and phenomena. There are many such disciplines: chemistry and physics, mathematics and biology, geography and astronomy.
Natural sciences, despite numerousdifferences in the subject and methods of research are closely related to social and humanitarian disciplines. This connection is particularly pronounced in the 21st century, when all the sciences come together and intertwine.