There is not one absolutely isolated fromother knowledge of science. All of them are closely intertwined with each other. And the task of any teacher or teacher is to maximally reveal these intersubject connections. In this article, we will examine in detail the relationship of geography with other sciences.
Inter-scientific (or intersubject) connections arethe relationship between individual disciplines. During the educational process, they must be established by the teacher (teacher) and the student. The identification of such links provides a deeper assimilation of knowledge and facilitates their more effective application in practice. Therefore, the teacher must emphasize the special attention to this problem in the study of any science.
Identifying intersubject communications is an importantthe factor of constructing a meaningful and qualitative education system. After all, their awareness by the student allows him to more deeply understand the object and tasks of a particular science.
The system of sciences that study nature includesphysics, biology, astronomy, ecology, geography and chemistry. They are also called natural science disciplines. Perhaps, the main place among them belongs to physics (in fact even the term is translated as "nature").
The interrelation of geography with other sciences that study nature is obvious, because they all have a common object of study. But why then do they study different disciplines?
The whole point is that knowledge about nature is veryit includes many different aspects and aspects. And one science is unable to comprehend it and describe it simply. That is why several disciplines have historically been formed, which study different processes, objects and phenomena occurring in the world around us.
Interestingly, right up until the 17th century, the science of the earthwas one and whole. But over time, as knowledge accumulated, the object of its study became more and more complicated and differentiated. Soon, biology broke away from geography, and then geology. Later a few more Earth sciences became independent. At this time, on the basis of studying the various components of the geographical envelope, the geography's connections with other sciences are formed and strengthened.
Today in the structure of geographical science there are at least fifty different disciplines. Each of them is distinguished by its research methods. In general, geography is divided into two large sections:
The first studies natural processes and objects,the second - the phenomena that occur in society and the economy. Often the connection between two narrow disciplines from different sections of the teaching may not be traced at all.
On the other hand, the links between geography and other sciences are very close. So, the closest and "native" for her are:
And at the junction of geography with other sciences, new disciplines can often be formed. So, for example, there was a geophysics, geochemistry or medical geography.
Physics is, in fact, the pure science ofnature. This term is found in the works of the ancient Greek thinker Aristotle, who lived in the IV-III century. BC. That is why the connection between geography and physics is very close.
The essence of atmospheric pressure, wind generationor features of the formation of glacial relief forms - it is very difficult to reveal all these topics without resorting to knowledge gained in physics lessons. Some schools even practice integrated lessons, in which physics and geography are organically intertwined.
The connection of these two sciences within the framework of the schooleducation helps students to better understand the teaching material and to specify their knowledge. In addition, it can become a tool for the formation of cognitive interest in schoolchildren to "related" science. For example, a student who previously did not get on well with physics can suddenly fall in love with her in one of the lessons of geography. This is another important aspect and benefit of intersubject communications.
The connection between geography and biology is perhaps the mostis obvious. Both sciences study nature. But only biology concentrates its attention on living organisms (plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms), and geography - on its abiotic components (rocks, rivers, lakes, climate, etc.). But since the connection between living and non-living components in nature is very close, this means that the data of science are a priori linked.
At the junction of biology and geography formeda completely new discipline - biogeography. The main object of its study is biogeocoenosis, in which biotic and abiotic components of the natural environment interact.
These two sciences also unite the issue of rational nature management. In search of the right answer to it, geographers and biologists consolidate all their efforts.
These two sciences are interconnected so closely thatsometimes the subject of their research is even identified. The solution of any environmental problem is simply impossible without addressing the aspects of geographic science.
Especially strong is the relationship of ecology withphysical geography. It resulted in the formation of a completely new science - geoecology. This term was first introduced by Karl Troll in the 1930s. It is a complex applied discipline that studies the structure, properties and processes that take place in the human environment, as well as other living organisms.
One of the key tasks of geoecology is to search for and develop methods of rational nature management, as well as to assess the prospects for sustainable development of specific regions or territories.
Another discipline from the class of natural sciences, which has quite close links with geography, is chemistry. In particular, it interacts with the geography of soils and soil science.
On the basis of these connections, the emergence and development ofnew scientific branches. This is, first of all, geochemistry, hydrochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and geochemistry of landscapes. The study of some topics of geography is simply impossible without the appropriate knowledge of chemistry. First of all, we are talking about the following issues:
The learning of this material by students will be more effective in the context of integrated lessons, on the basis of laboratories or chemistry classrooms.
Relations between mathematics and geography can beto call very close. Thus, it is impossible to teach a person to use a geographical map or a terrain plan without elementary mathematical knowledge and skills.
The connection between mathematics and geography is manifested in the existence of so-called geographical tasks. These are the tasks:
In addition, geography in their studiesvery often uses mathematical methods: statistical, correlation, balance, modeling (including computer) and others. If we talk about economic geography, then mathematics can be called "a half-sister".
The connection of these two scientific disciplines should not cause anyone the slightest doubt. After all, the map is the language of geography. Without mapping, this science is simply unthinkable.
There is even a special method of research -cartographic. It consists in obtaining the information necessary for the scientist from various maps. Thus, a geographical map from an ordinary product of geography turns into a source of important information. This method of research is used in many exercises: in biology, history, economics, demography and so on.
"History is geography in time, and geography is history in space." This extraordinarily accurate thought was expressed by Jean-Jacques Reclus.
History is associated exclusively with the publicgeography (social and economic). Thus, when studying the population and economy of a particular country, one can not bypass its history. Thus, a young geographer should a priori, in general terms, understand the historical processes that took place in a certain territory.
Recently, among scientists, there are ideas about the full integration of these two disciplines. And in some universities, adjacent specialties "History and Geography" have long been created.
Geography and economics are also very close. In fact, the result of the interaction between these two sciences was the emergence of a completely new discipline called economic geography.
If the key question for economics is the question"what and for whom to produce," the economic geography is primarily interested in the other: how and where are those or other goods produced? And this science is trying to find out why the production of a particular product is established precisely in this (specific) point of the country or region.
Economic geography originated in the middleXVIII century. Her father can be considered the greatest scientist M. V. Lomonosov, who introduced the term in 1751. At first, economic geography was purely descriptive. Then the sphere of her interests included the problems of locating productive forces and urbanization.
Today, economic geography includes several industry disciplines. It:
All sciences are related to each other in greater or greaterlesser degree. The ties of geography with other sciences are also quite close. Especially when it comes to such disciplines as history, physics, chemistry, biology, economics or ecology.
One of the tasks of a modern teacher is to identify andTo show the student the intersubject connections on specific examples. This is an extremely important condition for building a quality education system. After all, the complexity of knowledge directly depends on the effectiveness of its application to solve practical problems.