Methods and basic functions of sociology.

In this article we will look at the basic methods and functions of sociology.

The functions of sociology determine its role and contemporary social purpose. In general, the following main functions of sociology are distinguished:

1. Theoretical and cognitive. It consists in the accumulation of knowledge about society, about its processes and structural elements. The importance of this function is determined by the acceleration of the rate of development of society. This function takes on the greatest importance in our country, since it is Russia that is characterized by very rapid and profound transformations. Only objective knowledge about the ongoing changes in our society, their orientation and character, provided by sociology, allow us to overcome the crisis and ensure the development of the country.

2. Informational. Sociology is largely based on empiricalresearch, in the process of which the collection, accumulation and grouping of sociological information is carried out. In modern society, it is impossible to implement effective and sound management, if decisions that are taken do not have the necessary information support. Sociologists, drawing on the collected and objective information, develop recommendations and proposals for practice and policy.

3. Practical. Certain manifestations are quite diverse such function sociology. It manifests itself, for example, in that sociology, when examining a society from the standpoint of an integrated system, can develop well-founded forecasts about the trends in the development of specific social processes or phenomena. This is of great importance for the development of society, especially during the transition period. Such a function of sociology includes the following specific activities as social counseling and public services. At the same time, the manifestation of such a function of sociology found its place in social studies, for example, public opinion polls, marketing, etc.

4. World outlook. Sociology, studying modern society, creating a complete picture of social processes and relationships, forms a system of views on the world as a whole and the place of the person in it, as well as the attitude of the person himself to himself and to social reality, stipulating these ideals of people's ideals, their life positions.

5. Humanistic. It finds its manifestation as a consequence of the fact that sociology explains what conditions are necessary for a person to self-realization, showing how one can fully realize one's own social essence.

This is the main basic functions of sociology. Now it is necessary to disassemble the basic methods of this science.

The sociological method isa collective concept that includes concrete cognitive orientations, techniques, approaches, tools and methods that are used in sociological research.

All sociological methods can be combined into the following groups:

  • The general scientific, to which the methods relate,Used by all sciences, but applied in sociology taking into account its specificity. These include the following methods: comparative-historical, comparative, critical-dialectical, structural-functional, genetic, experiment, observation, etc.
  • Private-scientific, which include the methods used only by this science, for example, the biographical method, the poll, the method of sociometry, etc.

Since the methods of sociology necessarily rely onon the empirical data in the study of reality, then we can distinguish in addition to the listed methods of collection, as well as analysis of the collected information about the facts. The main methods of collecting information in sociology are polls, the study and analysis of information, observation, etc. The relevance and reliability of data determine the methods and functions of sociology.

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