Great Russian literary critic, doctorphilological sciences, Viktor Vladimirovich Vinogradov spoke about stylistics: "Stylistics is a kind of top of the study of language, the theoretical basis for the development of a national unique speech culture." Recently, we can observe a very interesting situation: due to the variety of methods of presenting information, a rapid branching of the stylistic sections occurs. This is the style of coding, and historical stylistics, and text style, and much more. However, it is generally accepted that stylistics as a science includes four main directions:
1. Stylistics of artistic speech is a style that explores the features of the speech of artistic creations, the specific character of the image of the literary trend and the independent author's styles of writing poets.
2. Structural stylistics (it is also called stylistics of language) - describes, characterizes and explains the mutual relations of various systems of word forms, series of words and systems from within a single construction of the language, the so-called "system of systems". Explores the changing types or trends in the development of language styles that have a complex of unique features.
3. Functional stylistics (stylistics of varieties of language use) is a section of stylistics that studies functional styles.
4. Practical stylistics (applied) - studies the normative use of language tools and helps prevent mistakes of various types in written and spoken language.
Language is a system consisting of levels, such as: vocabulary, phonetics-phonology, morphology, syntax and linguistic units (from smaller to larger, that is: sound, syllable, word, etc.)
Like the style of artistic speech, andrhetoric explores expressive means in oratory. A valuable moment in stylistics (and therefore rhetoric) is the doctrine of figures and paths of speech as methods of "decorating speech."
The figures of speech are expressive methods based on the comparison of specific units of text, that is: opposition, juxtaposition, rhyme, ellipsis, repetition, oxymoron, etc.
The path is a turn of speech, in which the expression is used in a figurative sense to achieve maximum poetic expressiveness.
All that is presented above combines in two words - stylistic devices.
Stylistic devices are individuallinguistic factor of text formation, showing a special method of textual production chosen by the author for a more accurate reflection of one's own worldview and the situation being transmitted.
Due to the results of text studies,It was found that at the phonetic-phonological level the following stylistic devices will be important speech constructs: paronomasia, assonance, anagram, palindrome, antonomasia, acrostic.
It is also necessary to realize that stylistic devices and expressive means of the language are two different things.
Let us examine the stylistic features of the famous writer's prose.
A vivid example is the humorous story of A.P.Chekhov - "The Avenger". The husband, insulted by his wife, stands in the gun shop and chooses a suitable revolver. He thinks only of one, three murders, including the murder of himself. Everything portends trouble, but in the end, after long meditations, he buys only a grid for catching quails. The plot here can not be called banal or predictable. Chekhov in this case used a stylistic device.
Stylistic devices in literature, both in Russian and foreign, play a serious role in shaping the image of the work, that is, they give shape and "highlight" the content itself.