Sociology is the science of society. The discipline includes separate institutions (morality, law, the state, etc.), processes, and also the community of people. The very concept was introduced into science in the middle of the 19th century by the founder of positivism, Auguste Comte (French scientist).
Object, subject and functions of sociology
The first concept reflects what is directed atstudy. The object of sociology, like other sciences of society, is a social reality. Moreover, it often coincides with the field of research and other disciplines (law, ethnography, history, philosophy and others).
The object and subject of political sociology -concepts are different. The one that determines the first will not be enough to determine the second. The subject matter of science is all connections, relationships that constitute the object of research. Discipline, in general, studies the integrity of society as a single organism, the relationship in it.
The object of sociology is a certain sphere of reality. It has relative integrity and completeness.
The object of sociology is, mainly,society. The research is aimed at identifying contradictions, problems that are subject to scientific analysis. Along with this, the object of sociology can be any side of social reality. But this will be possible only after it is included in the process of cognition, understood and highlighted.
The object of sociological knowledge is endowedset of quantitative and qualitative characteristics. It can be studied by various social disciplines. So, for example, the generality is explored by philosophy, political economy, psychology, history, political science. In this case, the sociologist distinguishes in the object precisely those relationships and characteristics that are necessary in the process of studying the phenomena of society, research, formation, functioning, and the development of social structures. The system can be identified at different stages of reality. In this connection, in the process of developing one question or problem, it is likely to resort to different social objects.
Investigation of essential properties and relationsanother part of the discipline is engaged. The object thus provides an object and is conditioned by its (object) properties, as well as by the nature of the problems that the researcher faces. Important in this case is the level of scientific knowledge and methods of cognition, which the researcher has.
It should be noted that one social objectsometimes they are studied for solving different problems, the subject of research here means boundaries. Within their limits, and studied. By tradition, defining the field of knowledge, identify the main, those or other social phenomena. As a rule, they include social relations, human interaction, processes, communities and so on.
Objectively, society includes variousgenerality. This is an immanent (inherent) feature of the unification of people. This feature is associated with a large number of general, specific factors. Between communities, within themselves, between personality and community, there are real diverse relationships. In this case, every relationship associated with a particular social phenomenon is subject to the action of certain trends and patterns. They constitute the main subject of sociological science research.
Different researchers studyis defined in different ways. Mainly, this is due to the fact that attention is focused on the unequal aspects of the life of the individual and community: attitudes, behavior and activities. Sociology includes various directions. They are determined by different approaches to the study of the social life of the whole society.