Comparison of plant and animal cells: main features of similarity and differences

The article will compare the plant and animal cells. These structures, despite the unity of origin, have significant differences.

General plan of cell structure

Considering the comparison of plant and animalcells, it is first of all necessary to recall the basic laws of their development and structure. They have common features of structure, and consist of surface structures, cytoplasm and permanent structures - organelles. As a result of their vital activity, organic substances, which are called inclusions, are stored in reserve. New cells arise as a result of the division of the mother. In the course of this process, two or more young structures can form from one source, which is an exact genetic copy of the original ones. Cells that are uniform in structure and function are combined into tissues. It is from these structures that the formation of organs and their systems takes place.

comparison of plant and animal cells

Comparison of plant and animal cells: table

On the table, you can easily see all the similarities and differences in the cells of both categories.

Symptoms for comparisonPlant cellAnimal Cell
Features of the cell wallIt consists of cellulose polysaccharide.It is a glycocalyx-thin layer, consisting of protein compounds with carbohydrates and lipids.
The presence of the cell centerIt is found only in the cells of the lower algae plants.It is found in all cells.
Presence and location of the kernelThe core is in the near-wall zone.The nucleus is located in the center of the cell.
The presence of plastidsPresence of plastids of three types: chloro-, chromo- and leukoplasts.None.
The ability to photosynthesizeOccurs on the inner surface of chloroplasts.Not capable.
Method of nutritionAutotrophic.Heterotrophic.
VacuolesThey are large cavities filled with cell sap.Digestive and contractile vacuoles.
Replacement carbohydrateStarch.Glycogen.

comparison of plant and animal cells

Main differences

Comparison of plant and animal cellstestifies to a number of differences in the features of their structure, and hence the processes of life. So, despite the unity of the general plan, their surface apparatus differs in chemical composition. Cellulose, which is part of the cell wall of plants, gives them a permanent shape. The glycocalyx of animals, on the contrary, is a thin elastic layer. However, the most important difference in principle between these cells and the organisms that they form is the way they feed. Plants have green plastids of chloroplasts in the cytoplasm. On their inner surface there is a complex chemical reaction of the transformation of water and carbon dioxide into monosaccharides. This process is possible only in the presence of sunlight and is called photosynthesis. The by-product of the reaction is oxygen.

comparison of plant and animal cells table


So, we compared the plant andanimal cells, their similarities and differences. Common are the structure plan, chemical processes and composition, division and genetic code. At the same time, plant and animal cells are fundamentally different in the way they feed the organisms that they form.

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