Currently, sociology is gaining widespreadrecognition and takes a worthy place among the sciences. She studies society in general and the person in particular, and also analyzes numerous points of their mutual contact. Sociology allows you to explore those aspects that we are sometimes ignored, makes it possible to understand the structure of human society, understand the feelings that govern our behavior, and realize how our society was formed. In other words, sociology gives us a certain consciousness that helps us understand social forces that restrain or release us, clarifying aspects of our lives and opening up a social world for us.
The difficulty in defining sociology as a science wasis caused by the fact that all the huge number of manifestations of social researchers tried to artificially lead to something one, merge together, and this in principle is unrealistic.
"Social" is the most important category of sociology. It arises in the process of people's interaction and includes the whole variety of their relations and connections that form a social life. The main focus of sociologists is directed at a person, since he is an active subject of social relations.
Because of the ambiguous definition of sociology as a science, it leads to its multilevel structure and is structured for different reasons:
- On the subject of research: macrosociology, microsociology and sociology of the middle level.
- On the level of knowledge obtained: theoretical and empirical.
- On the goals and objectives of sociological research: fundamental and applied.
Consider what includes the subject and object of sociology.
As the object of concrete science standsthe conditioned sphere of the subjective or objective world. The object of science is what it studies, for sociology it is society. A certain subject and object of sociology allows us to regard it as a science.
The subject and object of sociology is quite specific,because it is aimed at studying society in the whole variety of social properties, relationships and connections. Expressors and bearers of social qualities are classes, groups, individuals.
Therefore, social relations, interaction, communications, as well as the ways of their organization, this is the object of sociology as a science.
The subject of science is the resulttheoretical study. The subject of sociology as a science can not be uniquely defined, since it is the result of research activities. His understanding throughout the history of sociology has changed. Different schools and directions differently understand the subject of sociology as a science, as it is closely intertwined with research activities.
As the object of science is the partreality, reflected and researched by a particular science. These include: society as a whole; a community that includes workers, entrepreneurs and farmers; Macro-groups, consisting of the urban population, workers' settlements and production associations; and microgroups, which include groups, companies of people, families. In accordance with this, the object of sociology as a science is social phenomena and society as a whole, their development and functioning. Then the subject of sociology is a conceptual scheme of reality, where its main elements and traits are combined into a system and logically follow each other.
The subject and object of sociology is studied by society inin general, paying attention to its separate parts, spheres, elements, for example, domestic and labor relations, social institutions of education and politics, and conducting their analysis in a social aspect, viewing them through human awareness and perception.