Golgi apparatus: structure and functions of organelles

The Golgi apparatus is an important organelle thatis present in almost every eukaryotic cell. Perhaps the only cells in which this complex is absent are the erythrocytes of vertebrates. The functions of this structure are very diverse. It is in the tanks of the device that all the compounds produced by the cell accumulate, after which their further sorting, modification, redistribution and transport takes place.

Despite the fact that the Golgi apparatus was discoveredback in 1897, and to this day some of his functions are being actively studied. Let's consider more detailed features of its structure and functioning.

Golgi apparatus: structure

This organelle is a collection of membrane tanks that closely adjoin each other, resembling a pile. The structural and functional unit here is diktiosoma.

Dictiosis is a separate,an independent part of the Golgi apparatus, which consists of 3 to 8 closely adjacent tanks. A stack of these membrane tanks is surrounded by a system of small vacuoles and bubbles - this is how the transport of substances takes place, as well as the connection of dictyosomes between themselves and other cellular structures. As a rule, animal cells have only one diktiosome, while in plant structures there can be many.

In the diktiosome, it is common to separate the two ends - cis- andtrans-side. The cis-side faces the nucleus and the granular endoplasmic reticulum. Synthetic proteins and other compounds are transported here as membrane vesicles. At this end of the diktiosoma, new tanks are constantly being formed.

The trans-side is facing the cell membrane. As a rule, it is a bit wider. This includes connections that have already passed all the stages of the modification. From the lower tank, small vacuoles and vesicles are constantly torn off, which transport substances to the desired organelles of the cell.

Golgi apparatus: functions

As already mentioned, the functions of organelles are very diverse.

  • Here, a modification is madenewly synthesized protein molecules. In most cases, a carbohydrate, sulfate, or phosphoric radical is attached to the protein molecule. Thus, the Golgi apparatus is responsible for protein formation of the plasma membrane, enzymes and proteins of lysosomes.
  • The Golgi apparatus is responsible for transporting the modified proteins to specific areas of the cell. From the trans-side, small bubbles are constantly separated, which contain ready-made proteins.
  • Here, all lysosomal enzymes are formed and transported.
  • In the cavities of cisterns there is an accumulation of lipids, and later the formation of lipoproteins - a complex of protein and lipid molecules.
  • The Golgi apparatus of a plant cell is responsible for the synthesis of polysaccharides, which then go on to form the cell wall of the plant, as well as mucus, pectins, hemicellulose and waxes.
  • After dividing the plant cell, the Golgi complex takes part in the formation of the cell plate.
  • In the spermatozoon, this organelle takes part in the formation of acrosome enzymes, by means of which the egg shells are destroyed during fertilization.
  • In the cells of the protozoans, the Golgi complex is responsible for the formation of contractile vacuoles, which regulate the osmotic pressure.

Of course, this is not a complete list of allfunctions. Modern scientists are still conducting a variety of studies using the latest technology. It is likely that in the next few years the list of functions of the Golgi complex will grow significantly. But even today it can be said with certainty that this organelle supports the normal vital activity of both cells and the whole organism as a whole.

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