The Golgi apparatus is an important organelle thatis present in almost every eukaryotic cell. Perhaps the only cells in which this complex is absent are the erythrocytes of vertebrates. The functions of this structure are very diverse. It is in the tanks of the device that all the compounds produced by the cell accumulate, after which their further sorting, modification, redistribution and transport takes place.
Despite the fact that the Golgi apparatus was discoveredback in 1897, and to this day some of his functions are being actively studied. Let's consider more detailed features of its structure and functioning.
Golgi apparatus: structure
This organelle is a collection of membrane tanks that closely adjoin each other, resembling a pile. The structural and functional unit here is diktiosoma.
Dictiosis is a separate,an independent part of the Golgi apparatus, which consists of 3 to 8 closely adjacent tanks. A stack of these membrane tanks is surrounded by a system of small vacuoles and bubbles - this is how the transport of substances takes place, as well as the connection of dictyosomes between themselves and other cellular structures. As a rule, animal cells have only one diktiosome, while in plant structures there can be many.
In the diktiosome, it is common to separate the two ends - cis- andtrans-side. The cis-side faces the nucleus and the granular endoplasmic reticulum. Synthetic proteins and other compounds are transported here as membrane vesicles. At this end of the diktiosoma, new tanks are constantly being formed.
The trans-side is facing the cell membrane. As a rule, it is a bit wider. This includes connections that have already passed all the stages of the modification. From the lower tank, small vacuoles and vesicles are constantly torn off, which transport substances to the desired organelles of the cell.
Golgi apparatus: functions
As already mentioned, the functions of organelles are very diverse.
Of course, this is not a complete list of allfunctions. Modern scientists are still conducting a variety of studies using the latest technology. It is likely that in the next few years the list of functions of the Golgi complex will grow significantly. But even today it can be said with certainty that this organelle supports the normal vital activity of both cells and the whole organism as a whole.