Outsourcing as a loan agreement between legal entities

As shown by the results of the analysis conducteda group of researchers led by D. Farrell, participation in international trade in outsourcing services, can be viewed as a loan agreement between legal entities. At the same time, contrary to the view that even among supporters of the idea of ​​a mutually beneficial nature of outsourcing is believed, it provides the greatest benefit, or, using the terminology of game theory, the "winnings" that do not export but the importing country. According to their analysis of US-Indian trade in outsourcing services, calculated on every dollar invested by US companies in outsourcing abroad, the overall gain in the form of value added is 1.45-1.47 dollars for the world economy, of which 1, 12-1,14 dollars is in the American economy, and 0,33 dollars - on the economy of India.

Thus, the analysis of empirical dataconfirms that the Ricardian idea of ​​the mutually beneficial trade for the economies of the countries involved in it maintains its fairness with regard to outsourcing as one of the modern forms of international trade, provided that the conclusion of a contract between legal entities is based on parity grounds.

At the same time, one can not but note the validitythe positions of those researchers (in particular P. Samuelson and E. Limer) who, recognizing the correctness of the Ricardian model and, moreover, using it to substantiate their own conclusions, voice the fear that the increase in the volume of international trade in outsourcing services may eventually lead to a change in the terms of trade that would entail a change in the ratio of the gains of countries involved in international outsourcing to the exporting country and thereby violate this loan agreement between legal entities by the people.

In other words, their fear is thatinternational outsourcing will change the existing specialization of countries in the international division of labor and change the responsibility of the legal entity, according to which developed countries traditionally have a comparative advantage in science-intensive and high-tech areas where there is an increasing number of challenges to developing competition and transition economies, relatively cheap and highly skilled workforce, which they now have the opportunity to offer international market.

The situation described, in our opinion, is quiteis explained by the theory of the life cycle of the product of R. Vernon, according to which the production of labor-intensive traded goods (to which, as was proved above, for the purposes of research, outsourcing services can be equated), as a rule, moves from countries with expensive labor (in which the product, as a rule, is developed due to the presence in the country of a sufficient number of highly skilled labor necessary at the development stage and is beginning to be introduced) to countries with low cost labor required for the implementation The production of serial production and Tes will most violate this peculiar loan agreement between legal entities. And this, in turn, allows maintaining high rates of progress and gives an opportunity to get long-term benefit from international outsourcing to a wide range of countries involved.

In the course of the research conducted by specialiststhe main approaches to outsourcing correlation with traditional forms of international trade developed in the research community were analyzed. Based on the essence of outsourcing, the validity of considering outsourcing as one of the forms of international trade, the analysis of which is possible from the point of view of import-export transactions, is established, and the resulting consequences are generally similar to those for the national economies of export-import operations of the countries included in them, between which a corresponding loan agreement has been concluded between legal entities.

It can be concluded that, on the assumption ofthe similarity of outsourcing services and goods traded in international trade and elimination, thus, the differences in the formal features between the concepts of "goods" and "service acting as a subject of international trade" - the application of the classical Ricardian model of international trade for the treatment of outsourcing - and above all , its mutually beneficial nature for both countries - can be considered justified.

Finally, an analysis of the impact of outsourcingon the domestic labor market of the importing country, revealed mainly the structural nature of the unemployment caused by outsourcing and its natural (due to the continuously occurring changes in the structure of the national economy and the world economy) character.

Thus, the Ricardian idea ofmutual advantage of trade for the economies of the countries involved in it remains true to outsourcing as one of the modern forms of international trade. This, in turn, confirms that long-term benefits from international outsourcing in the long term are obtained by the subjects of both countries involved.

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