As you know, the word is the basic unitany language, as well as the most important component of his artistic means. Proper use of vocabulary in many ways determines the expressiveness of speech.
In the context, a word is a special world, a mirrorauthor's perception and attitude to reality. The artistic text has its own, metaphorical, accuracy, its own special truths, called artistic revelations, the functions of vocabulary depend on the context.
Individual perception of the world around usis reflected in such a text with the help of metaphorical utterances. After all, art is first of all the self-expression of an individual person. Literary fabric is woven from metaphors, creating an exciting and emotive image of a particular work of art. In words, there are additional meanings, a special stylistic coloring that creates a kind of a world that we discover for ourselves by reading the text.
Not only in the literary, but also in the oral,conversational speech, we use, without hesitation, various techniques of artistic expressiveness, to give it emotionality, persuasiveness, imagery. Let's see what artistic methods are in Russian.
Especially it helps to create expressiveness using metaphors, so let's start with them.
Artistic devices in literature can not be imagined without mentioning the most important of them - the metaphor. This is the way to create a linguistic picture of the world on the basis of already existing values in the language itself.
Types of metaphors can be identified as follows:
In addition, a metaphor can simultaneously be an allegory, an embodiment, a hyperbole, a paraphrase, a meiosis, a lito, and other paths.
The very word "metaphor" means in translation fromGreek "transfer". In this case, we are dealing with the transfer of the name from one subject to another. To make it possible, they must certainly have some kind of similarity, they must be in something related. A metaphor is a word or expression that is used in a figurative sense because of the similarity of two phenomena or objects according to a certain feature.
This transfer creates an image. Therefore, a metaphor is one of the most striking means of expressing an artistic, poetic speech. However, the absence of this trail does not mean the absence of expressiveness of the work.
A metaphor can be either simple or expanded. In the twentieth century, the use of developed in poetry is revived, and the character of simple changes significantly.
Metonymy is one of the varieties of metaphor. In Greek, this word means "renaming", that is, transferring the name of one object to another. Metonymy is the replacement of some word by another on the basis of the existing contiguity of two concepts, objects, etc. This is an imposition on the direct meaning of the portable. For example: "I ate two plates". Mixing of values, their transfer is possible because the objects are adjacent, and the contiguity can be in time, in space, etc.
The synecdoche is a kind of metonymy. In Greek, this word means "correlation". Such a transfer of meaning occurs when, instead of larger, the lesser is called, or vice versa; instead of a part, an integer, and vice versa. For example: "According to Moscow".
Artistic methods in the literature, the listwhich we now compose, can not be imagined without an epithet. It is a figure, a path, a figurative definition, a word combination or a word denoting a person, phenomenon, object or action from a subjective author's position.
In Greek, this means "applied, application," that is, in our case, one word is assigned to some other.
The epithet of simple definition is distinguished by its artistic expressiveness.
Constant epithets are used in folklore asmeans of typification, and also as one of the most important means of artistic expressiveness. In the strict sense of the term, only those of the traits belong to the paths, the function of which has words in a figurative sense, in contrast to the so-called exact epithets, which are expressed in words in the direct meaning (red berry, beautiful flowers). Images are created by using words in a figurative sense. Such epithets are usually called metaphorical. Metonymic transfer of the name can also be the basis of this trail.
Oxymoron is a kind of epithet, socalled contrasting epithets, forming a combination with the determined nouns of opposing words according to their meaning (hating love, joyful sorrow).
Comparison - a path in which one subjectcharacterized by a comparison with the other. That is, this comparison of different objects by similarity, which is both apparent and unexpected, remote. Usually it is expressed with the help of certain words: "exactly", "as if", "like", "like". Also, comparisons can take the form of an instrumental case.
Describing artistic techniques in literature,it is necessary to mention the personification. This is a kind of metaphor, representing the appropriation of the properties of living beings to objects of inanimate nature. Often it is created with the help of appeals to similar phenomena of nature as to conscious living beings. Incarnation is also a transfer to animals of human properties.
We note such methods of artistic expressiveness in literature as hyperbole and litote.
Hyperbole (in translation - "exaggeration") - one of the expressive means of speech, representing a figure with the meaning of exaggeration of what is at stake.
Litota (in translation - "simplicity") - the opposite of hyperbole - excessive understatement of what is at stake (boy with a finger, a peasant with a nail).
We continue to describe artistic techniques in literature. Our list will be supplemented by sarcasm, irony and humor.
Types of artistic techniques in literature do not end there. We present to your attention the following.
The most important artistic techniques in the literatureinclude the grotesque as well. The word "grotesque" means "intricate", "bizarre". This artistic device is a violation of the proportions of phenomena, objects, events depicted in the work. It is widely used in creativity, for example, ME Saltykov-Shchedrin ("The Lord of Holovlev," "The History of a City," a Tale). This is an artistic device based on exaggeration. However, its degree is much greater than that of hyperbole.
Sarcasm, irony, humor and grotesque - popularartistic techniques in literature. Examples of the first three are the stories of AP Chekhov and NN Gogol. Grotesque creativity of J. Swift (for example, "Gulliver's Travel").
What artistic method is used by the author(Saltykov-Shchedrin) for the creation of the image of Judas in the novel "The Lord of Holovlev"? Of course, grotesque. Irony and sarcasm are present in the poems of V. Mayakovsky. Humor filled with works by Zoshchenko, Shukshin, Kozma Prutkov. These artistic techniques in the literature, the examples of which we have just brought, as you can see, are very often used by Russian writers.
A pun is a figure of speech that representsinvoluntary or deliberate ambiguity arising when used in the context of two or more meanings of a word or with the similarity of their sound. His varieties - paronomasia, false etymologization, zevgma and concretization.
In puns, the play of words is based on homonymy andmultivaluedness. Anecdotes arise from them. These artistic techniques in literature can be found in the works of V. Mayakovsky, Omar Khayyam, Kozma Prutkov, A. Chekhov.
The very word "figure" in Latin is translated as"appearance, outline, image." The word is multivalued. What does this term refer to artistic speech? Syntactic means of expressiveness relating to figures: rhetorical exclamations, questions, appeals.
"What is the name of the artistic device,using the word in a figurative sense? "- you ask. The term" trope "combines various techniques: epithet, metaphor, metonymy, comparison, synecdoche, lithota, hyperbole, impersonation, and others. Translated artistic speech is distinguished by the fact that it uses special turns that adorn the speech and make it more expressive. Different styles use different expressive means. The most important thing in the notion of "expressiveness" for artistic speech is the ability of a text, an artistic work aesthetic, emotional impact on the reader, to create poetic pictures and vivid images.
We all live in a world of sounds. Some of them cause us positive emotions, others, on the contrary, worry, alarm, alarm, calm or induce sleep. Different sounds evoke different images. With the help of their combination, you can emotionally influence a person. Reading the works of literature and Russian folk art, we are particularly keen on their sound.
Often alliteration and assonance are used in works simultaneously. These techniques are aimed at causing various associations in the reader.
Zvukopis - is an artistic device,representing the use of certain sounds in a specific order to create a certain image, that is, the selection of words that mimic the sounds of the real world. This technique is used in fiction both in poetry and in prose.
Types of sound writing:
These artistic techniques in poetry are very common, without them poetic speech would not be so melodic.