In the modern economy, credit relationsare widely used. Therefore, it is necessary to know what loans are and what economic bases they have. This is important for the effective and correct use of loans and loans as a tool to meet financial needs.
In a credit transaction the subjects of relations area creditor (an individual, an organization or a bank issuing a loan without guarantors) and a borrower, a natural or legal person who needs money, usually cash.
Consumer credit received the widestSpread. Everyone knows what loans are, but how to get them is guaranteed - not everyone will answer. Basically, these loans are provided to citizens in the form of non-cash or cash. In the first case, these are loans to pay for the services of organizations or goods (for example, dental services, travel permits, etc.), in the second - targeted loans.
Usually the main essence of a loan is an increasesolvency of the population and, as a result, an increase in turnover. Demand for credit is born with demand for goods, on the other hand, the growth of loans increases the demand for goods. This effect is very noticeable in a saturated market. Today, obtaining a consumer loan is one of the most popular and publicly available bank operations. Absolutely any citizen from the age of majority (or the age established by the bank) can take a loan by providing a work book, a certificate of income and other documents required by the bank. Consumer loans can be obtained in cash, without reporting their income. But there is less likelihood of approval of the loan by banks. Finding out what are commodity loans or targeted loans, it is worth remembering that the borrower only needs to provide a passport (regardless of whether this is a phone shop or a travel agency). But this type of loan can be obtained not in the bank, but in organizations selling the necessary goods, and for a small amount. The bank issues a consumer loan for serious needs (purchase of a car, payment for education) under certain conditions, for example, upon presenting a certificate of income, a document on possession of property, etc. Each bank has its own conditions for issuing a cash loan.
Consumer loans, no doubt, besidesa number of advantages, have disadvantages. An average citizen can take a loan from a bank to solve the problem of sudden expenses (emergency departure to another city, car repairs and other circumstances) or to realize other desires that seem unrealizable: buying a laptop, a home theater or vacation abroad.
However, getting a loan in cash, you need to consider all the pitfalls that are difficult to notice to an unprepared person.
Banks are talking about low interest rates (an average of 15% per annum) and ideal conditions, but in fact, this may be hiding huge additional commissions - up to 70% per annum.
For repaying the loan before the term, many banks charge huge commissions.
The bank is obliged to report only the interest oncredit for the year. In addition to annual interest, there are other payments, for example, a commission for reviewing the issue of a loan, for issuing the loan itself, for formalizing a contract of sale and purchase, for maintaining an account. How can you get a cash loan and not get caught in these pitfalls? The most simple and successful way is to appeal to specialists who know all the financial and banking nuances and subtleties.
Lending is a rather difficult type of relationship ineconomy between the creditor and the borrower. Borrowers who are consumers of banking financial services do not have enough experience in obtaining loan products, signing insurance contracts, registering fees. Therefore, a lot of important information remains unknown to them.
Everyone had a situation where money is neededcritically urgent. For what they are needed - it does not matter: it can be a gift to the native person, and the purchase of new home appliances, and the long-awaited journey during the holidays, and repairs in the apartment, as well as many other things, without which in today's world - well, nothing at all. It is possible to wait very long, while on hands there will be a necessary sum. What to do?
It is in this situation that people turn to the bank. Cash credit is an ideal option. This service allows you to quickly get cash.
In Russia at the present time, more and more popularbecomes the receipt of express loans, this is one of the types of consumer lending. This type of banking is profitable, so this method is practiced in any financial institution. This loan is suitable for individual entrepreneurs, managers or owners of commercial organizations, for individuals.
Essentially this is a kind of loanconsumer: the express loan is given out in cash to the borrower. It differs from others in that applications are considered quickly and little documentation is required. Usually you need a passport or other identity document, passport, pension insurance card and driver's license. If the borrower at verification is suitable for the requirements of the bank, then the loan can be issued during the day. But you should not particularly enjoy getting this type of loan. The bank issues it with maximum benefit for itself, accordingly, the express loan differs from the others in a large amount of payments. Such loans are the most expensive of all consumer loans: a much higher interest rate, because the bank checks the borrower minimally. So, there is a huge risk on the bank of the non-return of such a loan. Therefore, express loans are given only for a short period and a small amount.
If you take the procedure for obtaining an instant loan for a private entrepreneur, then it does not differ from the usual one, and the ceiling of the loan is at the level of 500,000 rubles.
1. The loan is always calculated exclusively in the national currency and is always issued in cash.
2. The shortest possible time for making a decision on lending is, as a rule, within one day.
3. The simplest procedure for obtaining. A minimum package of documents is required, a loan can be issued quickly enough, and there is no need for guarantors.
But such favorable conditions also lead tosome nuances. The bank is taking a serious step by providing a loan to a person, while possessing the very minimum information about him. Therefore, as a rule, banks compensate for this by a high interest rate, a monthly commission, and also rather high requirements to the amount of a one-time payment for bank services.
However much the term "constantlife in debt, "lending has become an inalienable and often very convenient feature of our lives." This industry is developing significantly to make the inhabitants more and more, as a consequence, return even more.
Nevertheless, such a gloomy perspective after allcollides with the no less grim reality of our days. Having an average prosperity, the majority of such inhabitants would not have an actual chance to afford a sufficiently large range of goods necessary in daily life. Is that to postpone the old-fashioned in the bank on the shelf. But growing inflation and price jumps in the market very weakly contribute to this, prompting nevertheless to spend on themselves savings as the necessary needs arise. By the end of life, it is quite possible to accumulate, but alas ...
That is why many people in our timeprefer to get today, rather than wait and endure an uncertain time. The prospect of being in debt does not scare a person a little if the case was a clever approach, and the house already has new items that brighten or lighten our lives.
Credit transforms life.You get a good reason to reorganize your daily life and work for the subsequent optimization of costs with the expectation that part of the salary still has to be given for a loan without guarantors. Hence, the direct incentive to work better and more efficiently for obtaining additional work payments or even raising. By the way, this is not an illusory contribution to the very benefits for which credit is now hanging over you. They help to develop and facilitate their life now, and also to improve their living conditions - mobility, quality of rest, quality of health and so on. This, of course, entails moral and psychological growth, because the foreseeable real growth in the quality of life always gives rise to be proud of yourself and once again rejoice in the new day. And if you do not clog your head by the fact that a huge percentage of hard earned money selects those most incalculable debts - you can quite sincerely enjoy life and believe in your success.
But not everything is so cloudless.If you go back to earth, then credit is not only a new refrigerator here and now, it is also a huge responsibility. It is necessary to pay monthly the estimated amount of funds, which, in turn, must be earned. In addition, you first need to find out where to get a loan. There can be several options - banks, private credit organizations, etc. This entails fears for preserving the workplace and salary level, as an option - the wear of the body, caused by excessive zeal and diligence at work. Stress is an integral part of any lending. A constant obsessive sense of what you always have to someone is not a pleasant one, but if it still firmly sits in your head 24 hours a day - new things can no longer deliver any pleasure.
Such complications can be avoided ifelementary approach to the issue with intelligence and proper calculation. Do not overestimate their capabilities. Also, it is much easier to choose the right type of loan, fortunately, in our time, a sufficient number, and each is maximally adapted for the desired purpose. It is very good if the borrowed loan is spent on something that does not become obsolete and does not depreciate over time. For example, for housing. For housing there is a special mortgage lending, designed for the average layman, but at the same time - for long periods and large amounts. A mortgage loan can immerse you in an incomparable sense of being in debt for 10-20 years, but then you become a real owner of this very home. This is much more practical and better than an eternal lease, and subsequently the contribution can even pay off.
How to properly understand the possibilities and types of lending? Credit
agents are always ready to help in this. Turning to them, you receive invaluable help and free consultation.
Today in Russia, bankers are expanding the marketcrediting. But the right way and the approved plan have not yet been invented. It happens that a decent client is not given a loan or is given a high interest. And only a part of the requested amount can give. Even worse, if such a situation begins to repeat in many banks, and the client can not understand what is the matter.
Usually the client fills in a questionnaire, in which there are tricky questions. And the evaluation of all answers exposes the car with the help of credit scoring. And to argue with him is useless.
Scoring is a compromise in assessing the abilityborrowers to repay the loan. The Credit Committee can not personally consider all applications, and the number of loans issued should increase. Scoring is based on a mathematical model that tries to determine the obligatory and solvent borrower. It happens that such borrowers do not get a loan. The scoring system in Russia has just begun to operate, the banks are not yet able to apply it as correctly as possible. It should be remembered that scoring is just a mathematical program, and it has no purpose to humiliate the borrower. Its task is an acceptable amount of risk with the required level of credit. Banks minimize the risk of non-return, but so that there is a profit from the scale of the business.
In general, banks have a habit of assessing their ownformer clients on various target groups - from bona fide and unreliable payers. The position can change dynamically. Evaluation, as a rule, occurs through dozens of basic parameters, such as the presence of a car, the stability of a stay at the same place of work, and a number of others. Such scores are used to construct the corresponding scoring models. For example, if the borrower regularly changes his place of work, residence and often drinks, it is logical that giving him credit is extremely risky.
Banks usually use 3 different methodsconstructing such models of the desired client. First, it is a self-constructed model based on the profile of the target borrower. A fairly convenient and objective model that allows you to fine-tune the system for the best performance and efficiency. Secondly, it is the use of a scoring model of another bank. Plagiarism is plagiarism, but why can not you use someone else's experience, already experienced? As a rule, such models still have to be finalized to the required level of the bank, but most of the work has already been done and, importantly, worked out. And thirdly, this is the creation of an ideal client model. High requirements, which can correspond only to the "golden" client. The bank is once again making sure that this "golden" client actually exists and condescended to them to ask for money. This scheme is usually used only for certain types of loans, and not for entire banks, and guarantees good protection, but, alas, a high percentage of potential customers being weeded, which also guarantees good losses to the bank. But the scammers are protected.
Banks do not always work cleanly and transparently.Some wind up additional hidden commissions and interest, place in advertisements are not really real indicators on loans and stuff. This practice helps a lot to increase the bank budget, but it is fraught with the fact that the bank does not need a credit history of its customers - they usually apply for a loan to other banks, understanding what's what.
It should not be forgotten that denial of credit is notalways the fault of the bank. Clients often try to embellish or hide their real characteristics. Very often, refusals occur when credit is received from other banks. As a rule, banks look at the good faith of each client on credit history, if any.